суббота, 30 июля 2011 г.

გაუწყინარის ისტორია და თანამედროვეობა



l. surgulaZe








 gauwyinari
  -----------------------------
  istoria da Tanamedroveoba

2 0 1 0 w



b r Z e n T a    g a m o n a T q v a m e b i


     warsuli _ mkvidri saZirkvelia awymosi, rogorc awymo _ momavlisa. es sami sxvadasxva xana, sxvadasxva Jami eris cxovrebisa isea erTmaneTzed gadabmuli, rom erTi umeorod warmoudgeneli, gaugebari da gamoucnobia. amitom aris naTqvami erTis brZenisagan, rom awymo Sobili warsulisagan, aris mSobeli mermisisao. es samTa JamTa erTmaneTzed damokidebuleba kanonia iseTive Seuryeveli da gardauvali, rogorc yovelive bunebis kanoni.

                 ilia WavWavaZe, wminda ilia marTali, 1888 weli



     `mxolod warsulis codniT daucavs yovel ers Tavisi erovneba, Tavisi arseboba, Tavisi vinaoba.

                           ilia WavWavaZe,  wminda ilia marTali



     `romelia simagre Cveni cxovrebisa da romelia sifuye da sisuste, amas axsnis... xolme marto istoria. da, Tu igi daviviwyeT, maS dagviviwynia Cveni cxovrebis saTave, Cveni cxovrebis fesvi, Cveni cxovrebis saZirkveli da, Tu es asea, raRazed unda davamyaroT Cveni awymo, Cveni mermisi?~

                            ilia WavWavaZe, wminda ilia marTali



     `saWiroa xalxma icodes Tavisi warsuli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis istoria... unda icodes, rasakvirvelia, utyuari, WeSmariti istoria da ara gazviadebuli, yalbi~...

                                             ivane javaxiSvili








winasityvaoba

     `gauwyinaris istoria da Tanamedroveoba~ warmoadgens abaSis raionis sofel gauwyinaris warsulisa da awymos Tanmimdevrulad aRwera _ gadmocemas, rac aq sakmao sizustiTa da dawvrilebiTaa Sesrulebuli, vinaidan momavalma Taobebma zustad da TvalnaTliv warmoidginon `rani viyaviT~, rogor da ra garemoSi vcxovrobdiT,  ra saqmianobas veweodiT, ra iyo Cveni, maTi winaprebis Wiri da lxini da a. S. isini Rrmad unda Caswvdnen TavianT fesvebs da es yovelive momavalSi gaiTvaliswinon. amasTanave am naSromSi maqsimaluradaa SezRuduli garemoebebis, faqtebisa da movlenebisadmi avtoriseuli Sefaseba da damokidebuleba, misi poziciis dafiqsireba.
     yovelive aRniSnulis SeqmnisaTvis gamoyenebulia sxvadasxva moqmedi da gauqmebuli organizaciebis dokumentebi, cnobebi da monacemebi, agreTve adamianebisa da TviT avtoris mier gadmocemuli da mopovebuli sando informaciebi warsulisa da dRevandelobis Sesaxeb; dauzustebeli da saeWvo monacemebi ki aq naklebadaa.
     `gauwyinaris istoria da Tanamedroveoba~ pirveli mcdelobaa Cveni soflis istoriisa da Tanamedroveobis dafiqsirebisa, manamde msgavsi ram an ar Seqmnila, an kidev mas dRemde ar mouRwevia.
     ZiriTad teqsts Tan axlavs CD diski, romelzec Cawerilia TviT es teqsti, gauwyinarisa da masTan dakavSirebuli mravali fotosuraTi da eseni ganTavsebulia internetSi misamarTze www.gauwyinari.blogspot.com
                                   
                                                  2011 weli, ivlisi.




gauwyinaris istoria da Tanamedroveoba
    
     dasavleT saqarTveloSi, samegrelos aRmosavleT nawilSi aris abaSis raioni, romelsac samtrediis raionisgan mdinareebi cxeniswyali da rioni hyofs da maT marjvena mxares mdebareobs. abaSis raions CrdiloeTiT esazRvreba martvilis (yofili gegeWkoris), aRmosavleTiT xonisa (yofili wulukiZis) da samtrediis, samxreTiT samtrediisa da lanCxuTis, xolo dasavleTiT senakis (yofili cxakaiis) raionebi. es raioni (romlis farTobi 320,5 kvadratuli kilometria) mTlianad vake  dablobi teritoriaa da is kolxeTis dablobis (misi farTobia 220000 heqtari, sadac adre Waobi da gauvali tye da ekal _ bardebi iyo) Semadgeneli nawilia (mis SuagulSi mdebareobs), romelic zRvis donidan mcire simaRlezea,  10 _ 50 metrze, misi farTobi Seadgens 320,5 kvadratul kilometrs. am teritoriaze aris 20774 heqtari sasoflo _ sameurneo daniSnulebis savarguli, aqedan saxnavi 12791 heqtaria, mravalwliani nargavebi 1722 heqtari, saZovari 6241 heqtari, tyeebs uWiravs 1631 heqtari, buCqnari ki 721 heqtar farTobzea gaSenebuli. 2007 wlis monacemebiT kerZo sakuTrebaSi gacemulia 9976,4 heqtari, ijariT ki 1620 heqtari miwis nakveTi, saprivatizebo miwebis saerTo raodenobaa 3000 heqtari. abaSis raionis niadagebi ZiriTadad aluviuri karbonatuli tipisaa, gvxvdeba subtropikuli, eweri da Waobiani niadagebic. vake _ dablobi agebulia meoTxeuli naleqebiT (riynariT, qviSebiT, TixebiT), is daxrilia Crdilo aRmosavleTidan samxreT dasavleTisaken. rodesac aq zRva daSra, mdinareebma mTebidan Camoitanes Slami, qva _ RorRi da mTis naSali qanebi (isini dResac Camoaqvs mdinareebs, gansakuTrebiT ki rions), romlebmac Seqmnes kolxeTis dablobi da mTebSi mcxovrebi kolxebic barSi Camosaxldnen, maT Tan Camoitanes TavianTi civilizaciac. aqauri hava notio subtropikulia, atmosferuli wneva maRalia (760 mm. vercxliswylis svetis, 101,3 kilopaskalis maxloblobaSi), xilvadoba karg amindSi 16 kilometria, saSualo wliuri temperatura 14 gradusia, qarebi, romelTa siCqare zogjer 30 _ 33 metr/wams aRwevs,  musonuria, xSiria fionebi da brizebi.  naleqebis raodenoba ki 1622 milimetria weliwadSi, cud aminds xSirad ganapirobebs civi ciklonebis Semodineba, aseve xdeba haeris masebis Semodineba _ urTierTqmedebac, romlis temperaturisa da tenianobis mixedviT Sesabamisi amindi dadgeba. hidrografiuli qseli xSiria. abaSis raionis, iseve rogorc evraziis kontinentis umetesi nawilis pirdapir qvemoT, dedamiwis meore mxares wynari okeanis samxreTi nawilia samxreT amerikisa da avstraliis kontinentebs Soris. Cveni raionuli centria qalaqi abaSa, is qalaqad 1964 wels gamocxadda, sadac dRes daaxloebiT 6000 adamiani cxovrobs. es raioni nawilobriv megrulenovania, umTavresad misi dasavleTi mxarea megruli warmoSobis. aq ZiriTadad miwaTmoqmedeba da mesaqonleobaa gavrcelebuli, Tumca, gansakuTrebiT ki winaT sxvadasxva sawarmo _ organizaciac funqcionirebda.
     sityva `abaSa~ arabulidan momdinareobs, mis Sesaxeb mravali legenda arsebobs. erT _ erTis Tanaxmad arab mtrebs mdinare abaSis gadalaxva surdaT, magram is adidebula da erTmaneTs uyvirodnen `aba _ Sa~,  e. i. ukan davixioTo. `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ ki mematiane juanSeri mogviTxrobs rom VIII saukuneSi anakofiasTan Zleuli arabTa mxedarTmTavari murvan _ yru cixe gojTan dabanakda. am dros iseTi kokispiruli wvima mosula, rom ori mdinare, dRevandeli abaSa da cxeniswyali gauerTianebia _ `wyalTa maT zeda orTa, msgavsad erTisa~. erTma mdinarem daaxrCo murvanis laSqarSi myofi 23000 qveiTi eTiopiuri warmoSobis `abaS~ _ Ta tomisa; meore mdinarem ki waiRo 35000 cxeni da `amierTagan saxeli edva maT mdinareTa, erTsa `abaSa~, erTsa `cxeniswyali~. es yvelaferi momxdara amJamindeli Zveli abaSis Temis teritoriaze, romelic aerTianebs sofel Zvel abaSasa da nasoflar kadars.  sofels 1923 wlamde erqva abaSa mdinare abaSis gamo, xolo rodesac XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi, 1870 wels foTidan Tbilisamde sarkinigzo magistrali gaiyvanes, man sakaWaraos boloSi gaiara da kvaTanisa da mezobeli soflebis sazogadoebaTa TxovniT sakaWaraos yanebTan moewyo rkinigzis patara sadguri, romelsac ramodenime kilometrSi mdebare soflis saxeli _ `abaSa~ uwodes. am adgils karga xans `stancia abaSa~ erqva, Semdeg ki `stancia abaSis~ Semogareni da mTeli sofeli sakaWarao gaerTianda da ewoda `daba axali abaSa~,  1963 wlidan ki qalaqi abaSa.
     es patara raionia saqarTveloSi rogorc teritoriiT, aseve mosaxleobiTac.
Zalian didi xnis winaT, axlandeli kavkasia TiTqmis mTlianad zRviT iyo dafaruli, magram droTa ganmavlobaSi wyali xmeleTs uTmobda adgils. zRvidan amoiwia kavkasionisa da sxva mTagrexilebi,  kaspiis zRva moswyda Sav zRvas da maT Soris kavkasiis yeli gaCnda. gamyinvarebis Semdeg xmeleTze moSenda da gamravlda mcenareuloba, cxovelebi da adamianebi. mTeli Tanamedrove abaSis, senakis, samtrediis raionebi da martvilisa da xonis raionebis baris teritoriebi antikur epoqaSi kolxeTis centralur nawils warmoadgendnen (maT Soris iyo dRevandeli sofel gauwyinaris teritoriac, romelic sruliad ucnobia im droisaTvis ras warmoadgenda),  romelsac Zveli berZnebi adgilobrivi mosaxleobis toponimikaze dayrdnobiT `maxoriss~ uwodebdnen, rac kolxuri (megruli) sityva `xor~ _ isagan unda momdinareobdes, romelic dasaxlebas niSnavs. dasavlur _ qarTuli   egris _ lazikis samefos dros ki (is axali welTaRricxvis IV saukunis dasasruls Camoyalibda) abaSis raioni da samtrediis raionis nawili mdinare gubiswyalamde cixe gojis anu arqeopolisis saerisTavo iyo. `cxeniswyalisa da rionisken ars saWilao, samiqelao da ars adgili ese friad nayofieri yoveliTve. pirutyvi mZovar arian zamTar _ zafxul. frinvelni uricxvni, Tevzni arasada Tvinier rionisa. kirCxibi mravali, saxloben mTavarni da aznaurni.~ es aris vaxuSti batoniSvilis `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, romelic exeba VIII saukunemde periods. Sua saukuneebSi samegrelos samTavros aRmosavleT provincias saWilao ewodeboda. am safeodalos ganagebdnen didgvarovani feodalebi _ WilaZeebi (megrulad Wilaiebi, aqedan warmosdgeboda toponimi `saWilao~), maTi sacxovrebeli punqti, saWilaos centri sofeli tyviri iyo.  WilaZeTa sagvareulo dinastia XVI saukuneSi imdenad gaZlierebula, rom is mTavris titulis mopovebasac cdilobda. am dros saWilaos sazRvari dasavleTiT ekis mTamde (Tanamedrove senakis raioni) aRwevda, CrdiloeTiT _ banZamde (martvilis raioni), samxreTiT _ guriis mTebamde (Coxatauris raioni), xolo aRmosavleTiT _ mdinare gubiswyalamde. am periodis Semdeg es sagvareulo da maTi teritoria daqveiTebas iwyebs, maT TandaTan TiTqmis mTlianad  dakarges Zveli sabatono, romelic Wyondidel mitropolitTa (Tanamedrove abaSis raioni martvilis RvTismSoblisa da sujunis wminda giorgis eklesiebis sakuTreba gaxda) daqvemdebarebaSi gadavida da saeklesio safeodalod iqca. am droidan dRevandel abaSis raions saWilaos nacvlad saWyondidlo ewodeboda 1803 wlamde, samegreloSi rusuli mmarTvelobis damyarebamde.  WilaZeebs SemorCaT mxolod tyviri, marani, qolobani, gulekari da saWilao (dRevandeli pirveli maisi). isini male tyviridanac aRigavnen, saWilaoSi (pirvel maisSi) ki maTi adgili maTive namouravalma aznaurebma korZaiebma daikaves. 1856 wels martvilis raionis sofel salxinoSi dawyebuli ajanyeba mTel samegrelos moedo. mis damarcxebis Semdeg ajanyebis meTaurebi daapatimres da ruseTis Soreul guberniaSi gadaasaxles, aseve dedofali da mis ojaxi oficialurad gaiwvies ruseTSi da samTavroSi rusuli mmarTveloba damyarda. XIX saukunis damdegs samegreloSi mxolod 75000 adamiani cxovrobda, amave saukunis Sua periodidan samegrelo quTaisis gubernias ekuTvnoda. 1867 wels formalurad (praqtikulad ki 1857 wels) samegrelos samTavro gauqmda. mis bazaze Seiqmna zugdidis, senakisa da leCxumis mazrebi, dRevandeli abaSis raioni senakis mazris SemadgenlobaSi moeqca. senakis mazra aerTianebda dRevandeli senakis, abaSis, martvilis raionebs, agreTve xobis raionis aRmosavleT nawils (rionispira soflebs) da qalaq foTs. daviT dadianis dros samegrelo rva mazrad iyo dayofili, aqedan Tanamedrove abaSis raionis teritoriaze ori mazris centri iyo: sujuna da saWilao. saWilaos mazraSi Sedioda Semdegi soflebi: saWilao (pirveli maisi), qviSanWala, ilori, nafaRauri, sanavardo, naCxitauri, qoreisubani, tolebi, ekali, gulekari, keTilari, nafarcxevi, tyviri, cilori, kodori, Suaqalaqi, kvaTana, walikari, seriaCqoni, saqoCaqio, wyariZga, muxuri, saRvamiCao, Waladidi, patara foTi,  e.i. mdinare rionis xeobis soflebi foTamde. es patara mazrebi sam mazraSi iqna gaerTianebuli, am olqebs ki sapristaoebi ewodaT. amis Semdeg sujunis sapristavo, mere ki saboqaulo, senakis mazris aRmosavleT nawils (Tanamedrove abaSis raions) ewodeboda. XX saukunis dasawyisSi sujunis saboqaulo daba abaSad gadakeTda. saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis dros, 1918 wlis meore naxevarSi saqarTvelos  parlamentis kanoniT Camoyalibda arCeviTi organoebi _ samazro da saTemo erobani, romlebic adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis organoebs warmoadgendnen. senakis mazram gasabWoebis Semdegac iarseba 1933 wlamde, rodesac axali administraciuli mowyobis Sedegad mazrebi gauqmda da saqarTveloSi soflebi raionebis SemadgenlobaSi gaerTiandnen. amis Sedegad senakis mazridan sami raioni _ senakis, abaSisa da martvilis raionebi warmoiSva, romlebic dRemde arseboben.
     1963 _ 1966 wlebSi abaSis raioni maSindel gegeWkoris (dRevandel martvilis) raions SeuerTes da iq iyo raionuli centri, ris gamoc maSin gauwyinari da ukve yofili abaSis raionis sxva soflebi gegeWkoris raionis SemadgenlobaSi iyvnen, Semdeg ki abaSa isev calke raionad gamohyves. abaSis raionSi (municipalitetSi, raions bolo xanebidan xSirad municipalitets uwodeben) amJamad 15 sofelia (sul ki 42 sofelia, erTi qlaqi TviT abaSaa) romlebTac TavianTi sakrebuloebi aqvT (ssrk _ Si  yofnis dros sakrebulos sabWo erqva), maT Sorisaa sofeli pirveli maisic, romelic raionuli centris samxreTiT mdebareobs da misgan 9 _ 10 kilometriTaa daSorebuli. is zRvis donidan 13 metr simaRlezea. daaxloebiT 1939 wlamde pirvel maisSi sabWo ar iyo da is axlomdebare soflebianad marnis Tems ekuTvnoda. am soflis ganapirs mdinare cxeniswyali (is saTaves svaneTSi, lentexis raionSi Rebulobs) rions (misi saTave  raWaSi,  onis raionSia) uerTdeba, daaxloebiT 40 _ ian wlebamde  es SesarTavi badri lorias saxlis win iyo. pirvel maiss winaT saWilao erqva, komunistebis Semosvlis Semdeg ki mas saxeli Seucvales da mSromelTa saerTaSoriso solidarobis dRis saxeli uwodes,  rac dRemde ar SeucvliaT.
     pirveli maisis erT _ erT quCas kutaiweri hqvia, aseve mis da masSi Semavali soflebis zogierT sxva quCasa Tu farTobs Tavisi saxeli aqvs (magaliTad narmola, saTanuri, kurdRelia, udano, nafacxebi, naramo, orpiri, aseve gogiSvilebis, dunduebis, ZiZigurebis, grigoliebis quCa da sxva; garda amisa pirveli maisis bolo (grigoliebis) quCas zogjer qviSanWalas eZaxian, vinaidan is adre sofel qviSanWalas gziT uerTdeboda, romelic amJamad dazianebulia da TiTqmis ar moqmedebs). pirveli maisis sakrebulos TemSi 4 sofeli Sedis, esena: TviT pirveli maisi, Txmelari, gauwyinari da qviSanWala.
     sityvis `gauwyinari~ warmoSobis Sesaxeb aranairi werilobiTi wyaroebi ar mogvepoveba, isic ucnobia Tu rodidan hqvia Cvens sofels es saxeli; mxolod, rogorc zepirsityviereba amtkicebs, am sityvas safuZvlad udevs sityva `uwyinari~,  vinaidan aq winaT urmebiT Rvino dahqondaT gasayidad, romelsac mosaxleoba yidulobda da xSiri iyo qeifi da molxena, e.i. iyo uwyinari mdgomareoba,  rac Semdeg am soflis saxelwodebaSic aisaxa.
     sofel gauwyinaris teritoria, iseve rogorc mTlianad raionis, vake da dablobia; is mdebareobs zRvis donidan 20 metr simaRleze, abaSidan daSorebulia 13 kilometriT, masTan uaxloesi rkinigzis sadguri (baqani) maranSia (iqamde manZili 4 _ 5 kilometria). Cveni sofeli daaxloebiT mdebareobs CrdiloeT grZedis 42,25 gradusisa da aRmosavleT ganedis 42,12 gradusis gadakveTis koordinatze da mis maxloblad. sofeli Sedgeba dasaxlebuli da dausaxlebeli _ yanebis, saZovrebisa da mcire tyeebis mier dakavebuli teritoriebisagan.
     sofelSi 4 ZiriTadi saavtomobilo gzaa. erTi maTgani mTavari,  centraluri quCaa, romelic 1,64 km. sigrZisaa, masze 43 mkvidri da 13 aramudmivad mcxovrebi ojaxia, romlebSic 168 (mudmivad mcxovrebi) adamiani cxovrobs. es quCa moasfaltebulia, mis Crdilo _ dasavleTiT ki gadis misi paraleluri meore, gaRma quCa, romelic aseve moasfaltebulia da yvelaze grZeli da dasaxlebuli gzaa Cvens sofelSi. misi sigrZe  dasawyisidan mosaxleobis bolomde 2,29 km. _ ia. amis Semdeg es gza kidev grZeldeba 1,23 km. sigrZeze, mis dasaxlebul monakveTze  89 mkvidri da kidev 13 aramudmivi mosaxlea. es quCa dasawyisidan sul bolos, 3,52 km. _ is Semdeg yanebis, arxisa da miwayrilebis gayolebiT dasavleTiT Txmelarisa da tyvirisaken miemarTeba. meore quCa mTavar quCasTan SedarebiT odnav dabla mdebareobs.
     es ori quCa erTmaneTs or adgilas uerTdeba daRmarTiani mokle gzagamtarebiT: skolis win (is mTavar gzas dasawyisidan 1,3 kilometr manZilze gamoeyofa, romelic gaRma quCas 980 _ e metr monakveTze uerTdeba da TviTon 200 metri sigrZisaa) da sabavSvo baRis gverdiT,  iq sadac mTavari quCa mTavrdeba (misi dawyebidan 1,64 kilometrze, xolo es gzagamtari, romlis sigrZe 250 metria, meore quCas 1,37 kilometr manZilze uerTdeba misi dasawyisidan) da orad iyofa. am adgilas cxovrobs 2 mudmivad mcxovrebi ojaxi 9 wevriT da 4 aramudmivad mcxovrebi ojaxi.
     maT garda gauwyinarSi kidev aris quCa, romelic centralur gzas soflis centrSi gamoeyofa da samxreT _ aRmosavleT mxares, mezobel sofel qviSanWalisken miemarTeba (is mTlianad rionispira patara sofelia), amitom mas qviSanWalis gza uwodes, Tumca misi ZiriTadi monakveTi gauwyinaris teritoriazea. is qviSanWalis sazRvramde 1,35 km sigrZisaa; masze 2 mudmivi mosaxlea 7 adamianiT. aRniSnuli quCa yofili soflteqnikis ezomde marcxena mxares asfaltiania, danarCeni adgilebi ki xreSiTaa dafaruli. am quCas dasawyisidan 55  metrSi,  marjvena mxares gamoeyofa aseve xreSiani,  skolis ukana quCa, romelsac msgavsad meore quCisa, mTavari quCis paraleluri mdebareoba aqvs da is samxreT _ dasavleTiT 1 kilometrze miemarTeba, romelic 17 mkvidr da 7 aramudmiv mosaxles iTvlis 63 adamianis raodenobiT. stadionis bolos, misi dasawyisidan 400 metrSi mas uerTdeba mTavari quCis dasasrulis marcxena ganStoeba,  misi sigrZe 50 metria.
     centraluri da meore gzebis SemaerTebel monakveTs, 95 metroSi, sabavSvo baRis gverdiT, marcxniv gamoeyofa 562 m. sigrZis xreSiani gza _ wisqvilis quCa, romelzec 2 mudmivi da 6 aramudmivi mosaxlea 4 macxovrebliT. is boloTi uerTdeba mis marTobul gruntian gzas 274 _ e metr monakveTis manZilze, romelic Tavis mxriv iwyeba qviSanWalis gzis dasawyisidan gamoyofil skolis ukana, xreSiani quCis bolodan, gaivlis aRniSnul wisqvilis gzis dasasruls da uerTdeba meore quCas (misi Tavidan 2 kilometr manZilze), misi sigrZe daaxloebiT 420 metria.
     es CamoTvlili quCebi warmoadgenen gauwyinaris dasaxlebul adgilebs. mTavar da mis mopirdapire  meore quCas Soris, masze mTavari gzis dasasrulis marjvena ganStoebis SeerTebamde mosaxleoba ZiriTadad or rigadaa dasaxlebuli, maT ezoebi erTmaneTis ukan aqvT, gamonaklisi SemTxvevebi ZiriTadad mosaxvevebSia. CvenTan daaxloebiT 210 _ mde ojaxia,  400 _ ze  meti  macxovrebliT.
     sofelSi aseve aris dausaxlebeli gzebi. zemoTnaxseneb gruntis gzaze mosaxlis WiSkari araa, is mxolod gverdiT Caudis ramodenime mosaxlis (eTer Turqias, zaal xaJomias da nikita xaJomias) ezos. aseve qviSanWalis gza ZiriTadad dausaxlebelia, masze mxolod ori mkvidri mosaxlea, xolo mis bolos,  sadac didi arxi _ damba masze gadasasvleli bogiris qvemoT gavliT marTobulad hkveTs qviSanWalis gzas, am arxs iqeT (qviSanWalis mxares, marcxniv)  xreSiani gza gasdevs,  romelic pirveli maisis bolodan iwyeba arxTan erTad da am bogiris Semdeg (aq is odnav marjvniv uxvevs, misi dawyebidan aqamde manZili 1 kilometria, xolo mTeli am gzis sigrZe ki daaxloebiT 3,6 kilometria) marjvena gayolebaze mas kirkalis gza hqvia. es gza da arxi dangreul wyalsatumbamde da Semdeg ki mdinare rionamde Cadis da is mTlianad dausaxlebelia,  mis orive mxares yanebi, qviSanWalis bogiridan erTi yanis Semdeg, marjvniv saZovaria, Semdeg ki aseve orive  mxares yanebia.
     gauwyinaris mTeli teritoriis farTobi daaxloebiT 5 _ 6 kvadratuli kilometri,  500 _ 600 heqtaria.
     winaT soflis yvela gza xreSiani iyo,  maTi nawili daaxloebiT 1970 wlis Semdeg asfaltiT dafares, bolos ki quCebSi asfalti gasuli  saukunis 90 _ iani wlebis dasawyisSi daages,  swored  maSin moaasfaltes pirvelad qviSanWalis gza nawilobriv.
     pirveli maisis gzajvaredinis (`oTxborZali~ gzis) marjvena mxridan sofeli gauwyinari, misi mTavari, centraluri quCa iwyeba, magram aq da sxvaganac araviTari Sesabamisi warwera ar aris.  aq pirveli mosaxle marjvena mxares aris kote qunTelia. es da sxva quCebi zogan sworia, zogan ki mixveul _ moxveuli.  rezo surgulaZis ezos win,  gzis marcxena mxares aris mravali wlis didi daxrili xe. am mxares mosaxleebis ukan pirveli maisis stadionia. mamuka surgulaZes ezoSi, wina RobesTan jixuri (`butka~) aqvs Cadgmuli, sadac adre sxvadasxva produqti iyideboda. moSorebiT, aseve marcxena mxares, vaJa goToSiasa da mayvala Turqias ezoebs Soris aris karebiani biliki, romliTac mosaxleoba daviT arevazovisa da vaso goToSias saxlis CaTvliT saqonels mierekeba (midenis) saZovarze (misi saZovris SeerTebis adgilas meore karia), romelic mosaxleobis ukanaa ganfenili vitali surgulaZis ukana ezos mimdebare  teritoriebis CaTvliT; is aseve esazRvreba xboebis sabalaxos da yanebis nakveTebs.  es saZovari pirveli maisisaa, Tumca masSi gauwyinaris mravali mosaxlec aZovebs Zroxebs da misi mniSvnelovani nawili gauwyinaris teritoriazea. am sabalaxos ukana nawili vaso goToSias ezos ukana adgilebis sisworemde adre gauwyinaris meRoreobis fermis ezos ekuTvnoda.
     am quCaze roman xabeiSvilisa da zurab goToSias ezoebs Soris, liana aSveTias saxlis win 1987 wels eqspluataciaSi Sevida axali kantora,  didi da lamazi, maRal fundamentze mdgari orsarTuliani, SiferiT daxuruli eleqtroficirebuli Senoba, movlili da gamwvanebuli ezoTi, romlis wina mxares qvis Robe da 3 Casasvlel _ gadmosasvleli WiSkari dRemdea SenarCunebuli. aq manamde mosaxlis nakveTi iyo. am SenobaSive iyo soflis biblioTekac, romelsac Semdeg Txmelarisa da pirveli maisis biblioTekebis wignebic SeuerTes. misi gamge winaT iyo lali xijakaZe, 2003 wlidan dRemde ki misi (ukve skolaSi gadmotanili biblioTekis) gamge iamze vefxvaZea. kantoris Senobas ukana mxares hqonda farTo darbazi, klubi sceniT, skamebiTa da saTanado teqnikuri aRWurvilobiT. aq periodulad tardeboda kinofilmebi (kinomeqanikosi goCa janjRava iyo), koncertebi, krebebi da sxvadasxva saxis RonisZiebebi, risTvisac birJaze da sxvaganac winaswar ikvreboda afiSa. im kantoraSi, romelsac mowyobili hqonda qvanaxSirze momuSave centraluri gaTboba (misi saqvabe (`kaCigaria~) kantoris Senobis ukan iyo, mas ar umoqmedia), muSaobdnen imdroindeli kolmeurneobis xelmZRvaneloba, romlis bolo Tavmjdomare iyo malxaz Turqia, is pirveli da bolo arCeuli xelmZRvaneli iyo am Tanamdebobaze (sxvebs ki niSnavdnen). aseve aq muSaobdnen: boris Zvelaia (mTavari buRalteri), dali mumlaZe (buRalteri), nargiza Turqia (xelfasis buRalteri), lamzira ivaniaZe  (buRalteris moadgile), badri avaliani (mTavari ekonomisti), nino dundua (ekonomisti), lamazo gabrava (aRmricxveli), iamze kuWuxiZe (molare), vaJa kopaleiSvili, karlo guguSvili (agronomebi), statistikosi, liana aSveTia (damlagebeli). kolmeurneobis daSlis Semdeg kantora gauqmda da masSi jer afxazeTidan ltolvili guram qarCavas ojaxi Seasaxles, maT Semdeg ki aq erTxans aseve ltolvili raJden giorxeliZe cxovrobda; maTi wasvlis Semdeg Senoba nel _ nela dazianda, bolos ki,  daaxloebiT 2005 wels biblioTeka skolaSi gadaitanes, klubis darbazis skamebic skolis did oTaxSi daawyves, sadac manamde SromiTi swavlebis kabineti iyo, axlandeli saaqto darbazi, Senoba ki daSales da gayides. aseTive proeqtis yofili kantora da Robe aris abaSis raionis sofel norioSi, sadac amJamad ltolvili cxovrobs.
     vaso goToSiasa da arsen surgulaZis ezoebs Soris adre gza Cadioda, romelic mosaxleebis ukan arsebul imdroindel Zvel meRoreobis fermas uerTdeboda, romlis gamge levan gigineiSvili iyo (pirvel maiseli). es ferma manamde soflis gareT,  cxilarisken iyo agebuli,  Semdeg is aq aaSenes. aqve axlos iyo mefrinveleobis fermac, romelic bolos kolmeurneobis ezoSi ganaTavses. Semdeg meRoreobis ferma kvlav sxvagan gadaitanes, gza ki mosaxlem SeuerTa Tavis ezos.
     centraluri quCis dasawyisidan 1,2 km _ is manZilze sofel gauwyinaris centria. am adgilas mTavar quCas marcxniv gamoeyofa qviSanWalisken mimavali gza, romelic yvelaze swori grZeli samanqano gazaa Cvens sofelSi. is dasawyisSi moxveulia, risi mizezic misi gayvanis dros aq mdgari xuta Turqias saxli iyo, romelsac es gza aaciles. masze pirveli mosaxlea murTaz surgulaZe, meore da bolo mkvidri ojaxi ki gia quTaTelaZea. orTaves winaprebi aq SedarebiT gvian Camovida. es gza 1956 wels gaiyvanes (gaWres), rasac gedevan verulaSvili xelmZRvanelobda, ris Sedegadac cvlileba ganicada aqaur mosaxleTa ezoebma; manamde ki aq sacalfexo bilikebiT tye (TuTebis (bJolebis), Txmelebisa da sxva xeebi) da mindvrebi iyo. adre aseTi tyiTa da velebiT dafaruli teritoria sofelSi  meti iyo,  Semdeg ki isini TandaTan adamianebma aiTvies.
     gia quTaTelaZis win ki soflis saZovaria. is SemoRobilia (Semokavebulia) mavTulbadiT (`setkiT~), eklebiani mavTulebiTa (`kaliuCi sinebiT~) da cocxali RobiT,  `sangrebiT~,  romelic 42 heqtar mindorsa da tyes moicavs (aq da teqstis sxva adgilebSi dawerilia iseTi sityvebic, romlebic ar aris Tanamedrove qarTul enaSi miRebuli, zogierTi maTgani kuTxuri gamoTqmaa, zogi ki barbarizmi, magram vinaidan dRes isini Cvens sofelSi xSirad gamoiyeneba, amitom isini aqac ucvleladaa gadmocemuli, magram maTze garkveuli miniSnebebia, isini Casmulia brWyalebSi, aweriaT `e.w.~, an kidev `rogorc mas sofelSi uwodeben~ da sxva). aq 43 mosaxle boris Turqiasa da arsen surgulaZis ojaxebis CaTvliT da wisqvilis quCis mosaxleoba aZovebs daaxloebiT 120 _ 150 sul saqonels. am adgils 80 _ iani wlebis Sua periodamde kolmeurneoba xnavda da Tesavda, Zroxebs ki mosaxleoba maSindel goSaxis saZovarze mierekeboda. Semdeg ki es teritoria SemoRobes da sabalaxod gadaakeTes.  mogvianebiT,  90 _ iani wlebis bolos mas Semoumates mis ukan arsebuli yanebis miwebi, ris Sedegadac am sabalaxos ukana sazRvarma did arxamde,  e.i. qviSanWalis sazRvramde miaRwia. saZovris Robis toli monakveTebis movla _ patronoba mosaxleobam iTava. mas adre mwyemsebi hyavda, romlebic Robes aremontebdnen da yuradRebas aqcevdnen mas Sig Rorebi ar Casuliyo. isini yovelTviurad am sabalaxoTi mosargeble ojaxebisgan garkveul Tanxas Rebulobdnen;  eseni iyvnen: meqi da baxva surgulaZeebi, mixeil (miSa) lolua, goCa da jambul janjRavebi, gia quTaTelaZe. Semdeg ki saZovars mosaxleoba uvlida monacvleobiT or _ ori ojaxi erT dRes,  sxvebi momdevno dRes da a.S. saZovris sargeblobisaTvis mcire gadasaxadi dResac SeaqvT saxelmwifo xazinaSi.
     es saZovari agreTve moicavs qarsacav zols _ qarsafars, romelic WiSkris maxloblad iwyeba da mTel sabalaxos gasdevs qviSanWalis farTobebis dasawyisamde. is da soflis sxva tyeebis zolebi 1951 _ 1953  wlebSi darges. aq iyo evkaliptis (rac dRes araa SemorCenili) xeebic. am tyis dasawyisSi aris ori Tavisufali adgili, zoli, romelSic gia da Saqro quTaTelaZeebi siminds, xan kidev nesvs da sazamTros Tesaven. es tye ZiriTadad wiwvovani (naZvi, fiWvi da sxva) iyo, Semdeg is 90 _ iani wlebis bolos sxva tyeebTan erTad murad grigolias (pirvel maiseli) xelmZRvanelobiT moWres da gayides, aq ki axali xeebi amovida, umTavresad foTlovani: ZiriTadad Txmela, aseve Wadari, iSviaTad (`eger ager~) aris wiwvovani mcenare naZvic,  garda amisa miwaze da xeebze  moedo gauvali nar _ ekalic (e. w. gvinZReebi, burduebi, Jverebi, mwareebi, trifoliatebi, xviarebi, suroebi, inZgliebi, sadac ekalasa da mayvals krefen). aq da soflis sxva adgilebSic binadrobs gareuli cxovelebi: tura (romelTa kivilis xma Ram _ RamobiT xSirad ismis sofelSi), kverna, kurdReli, zRarbi, ku, erTxel Svelic gamoCnda; aseve mRrRnelebi (Tagvi, Txunela (fuRu)), qvewarmavlebi (gveli, zloki, xvliki), mwerebi (koRo,  buzi, kalia, maxra, xoWo), Wiebi, lokokinebi, matlebi, amfibiebi (bayayi), frinvelebi: tyis qaTami, `RarRia, kokorina~,  ixvi, indauri,  yvavi,  yorani, Zera, ofofi,  mwyeri, SaSvi, guguli,  beRura, Citebi da sxva. zogierT maTganze, romelic sakvebad vargisia, adamianebi nadiroben meZebari ZaRlebis TanmxlebiT, xolo maTi nawili zogjer mosaxleobaSic Semodis da maT azaralebs xolme.
     saZovris dasavleTiT aris roman cercvaZisa da abel koxreiZis kuTvnili TuTebis (bJolebis) plantacia, romelic SemoRobilia. mas winaT meabreSumeobisaTvis iyenebdnen, axla ki iq ramodenime ojaxi pirutyvs aZovebs da SeSas sargeblobs,  sadac bevria Txmelas xeebi. msgavsi ufro patara plantaciebi agreTve zogierT mosaxlesac hqonda ukana ezoSi.
     adre saZovris win gia quTaTelaZis ezomde xeebi da ekal _ bardebi iyo, Semdeg ki isini gawmindes da fermas miakuTvnes. amJamad ki aq sam mosaxles dausaxlebeli samosaxlo SemoRobili nakveTebi aqvT. am qviSanWalis gzaze zogjer xreSs yrian da asworeben.
     maT iqeT xboebis saZovaria. isic adre fermis ezo iyo, daaxloebiT 1995 wlis Semdeg (rodesac meRoreobis ferma daiSala) ki Rorebis sabalaxo. mogvianebiT misi Robeebi (mavTulebisa da `sangrebis~) dazianda,  romelTa kargad SekeTeba SeuZlebeli gaxda da is xboebis saZovrad gadaakeTes. Semdeg iq Txmelebic amovida, romelsac mosaxleoba Wris da sargeblobs, maT ukan pirveli maisis saZovris sazRvari gadis. RorebisTvis ki iqve gzaze moawyves ormo, romelzec liTonis gisosebi daafares, vinaidan am winaRobis iqeT,  yanebisken maTi gadasvla SeuZlebeli iyos, transporti ki am gisosebze Seuferxeblad gadadis. es gisosebiani ormo gzis siganis naxevarzea, danarCen naxevarze ki karebi dahkides cxenis gadasasvlelad, amis Semdeg Rorebs quCaSi uSveben. gvian Semodgomaze, yanebis aRebis Semdeg karebs saerTod xsnian da inaxaven,  pirutyvi ki Tavisuflad moZraobs am adgilas. aqve marjvniv nagavsayrelia (is sofelSi sxvaganacaa),  iqeT ki sabalaxos nawilia, sadac farTo Waa amoTxrili,  misi wyliT saqoneli wyurvils iklavs. msgavsi Wa sabalaxoSi kidev aris karebis maxloblad.
     am adgilebis iqeTa mxares adre jimasuls eZaxdnen. Tu gadmocemas davujerebT, es saxeli dakavSirebulia megrul sityva `jima~ _ sTan rac Zmas niSnavs, e.i. Zmiseuli anu jimasuli. soflis teritoriebs aseve sxva saxelebic erqvaT (magaliTad salaqaSo). xboebis saZovris gverdiT yofili meRoreobis fermaa. is 60 _ ian wlebSi zemoT naxseneb adgilas daSales da aq aaSenes berketis grZeli Senobebi (amis gamo am adgilebSi bgeris arekvlas, eqos hqonda adgili),  romlebic SiferiT iyo daxuruli. ukana mxares ki  TeTri  agurisagan naSeni Ria samwyvdevi iyo. sul adre  aq xis fermac iyo, romelic Semdeg daSales. am fermis ezoSi iyo wylis rezervuarebi, auzi, Wa, WaburRili, mowyobili iyo wyalgayvanilobac. ferma dens Rebulobda wina ezoSi mdgar transformatoridan, romelic SeerTebuli iyo ezoSi gadamaval maRali Zabvis xazebze. SenobaSi hqondaT safuraJe wisqvili (e.w. `drabilka~), romelic amJamad soflis wisqvilSia. aqve iyo mowyobili qatos dasayari da muSa _ mosamsaxureTa oTaxebic (hqondaT televizoric). Rorebi SenobebSi liTonis gisosebian galiebSi iyvnen damwyvdeulni, romlebsac drogamoSvebiT ezoSic (is axlac `setkiTaa Somokavebuli~, romelsac win adre didi WiSkari hqonda, amJamad ki xis kari aqvs) uSvebdnen da aZovebdnen. galiebs win hqondaT sapireebi sakvebisa da wylis misawodeblad. cxovelTa organuli narCenebi Senobebidan lentiseburi transportioriT (romelsac eleqtroZrava,  motori  (matori) amoZravebda) gareT gadioda da erT adgilas grovdeboda,  is Semdeg yanebSi gahqondaT da mas organuli sasuqis saxiT niadagis gasanoyiereblad iyenebdnen. mosaxleobasTan axlos fermebisa da sawyobebis arseboba sofelSi mwerebisa (buzebi, koRoebi, rwyilebi) da mRrRnelebis (Tagvebis) gamravlebas iwvevda, aseve axlomdebare adgilebSi cudi suni vrceldeboda.
     aq erT dros  1000 _ ze  met Rors zrdidnen, uvlidnen da abarebdnen saxelmwifos. fermaSi muSaobdnen veteqimi, zooteqnologi, muSebi. aq mravali sofleli iyo dasaqmebuli da Rebulobdnen xelfass,  bolo dros eseni iyvnen: vera da sonia goToSiebi, venera,  Jani (Janiko) da guli surgulaZeebi, nora da nanul Turqiebi, Sio komaxiZe da sxvebi. fermas saTanadod amaragebdnen qatoTi (romelic Sesabamisi avtomobilebiT `nasipad~, e.i. taris, tomrebis gareSe mohqondaT),  sakvebiTa da saWiro wamlebiT. misi gamgeebi winaT iyvnen panteleimon ratiani, aleqsandre (buWa) surgulaZe, jemal Todua, SoTa SalamberiZe (gamge iyo 1975 wlidan 80 _ iani wlebis bolomde, qviSanWaleli), mcire xans rezo gigineiSvilic (pirvel maiseli) iyo am meRoreobis fermis xelmZRvanel Tanamdebobaze (iyvnen sxva gamgeebic), bolos ki jondo Todua,  romlis Semdegac 90 _ ian wlebSi es ferma daiSala da is dRemde oleg ratians abaria. Rorebi gayides, Senobebis nawili da mowyobilobebi ki daangries da diataces. amJamad aq erTi didi carieli, saxuravgadaxdili Senoba, meore didi Senobis kedlebi,  aguris Ria samwyvdevis ukana kedeli,  mrgvali, miwis zemoT amoSenebuli auzi (masSi bolo xans adamianebi banaobdnen) da miwaSi Wa da auzia SemorCenili. ezos ki, romlis didi rkinis WiSkaric waiRes da mis nacvlad sarebi daarWves,  metwilad nar _ ekali da Txmelebi moedo (moeria); am adgilas axla zogierTi mosaxle  (umTavresad momvleli oleg ratiani) drogamoSvebiT pirutyvis saZovrad iyenebs,  aqvea Txilis nargavebi da sxva xeebi.
     am fermis win adre gauwyinaris stadioni iyo, mas SoTa qiSmareiSvili uvlida. iq imarTeboda varjiSebi, fexburTis matCebi Siga sasoflo da mezobel soflebs Soris, rasac didi interesiT uyurebda mosaxleoba. Semdeg es stadioni 80 _ ian wlebSi sxvagan gadaitanes,  es adgili ki mas Semdeg  dRemde  romani surgulaZis yanaa.
     am yanis win aris gauqmebuli sasoflo sameurneo teqnikis (soflteqnikis) ezo. masSi Sedis berket _ aguris ori daumTavrebeli mcire zomis Senoba darajisTvis da sxva miznebisTvis gaTvaliswinebuli,  romlebic dResac dgas wina mxares, aseve auzi da sxva nagebobebi. aq yridnen sasuqs da Semdeg gahqondaT is sayane farTobebSi. am soflteqnikis ezos srulad mowyoba da funqcionireba ver moeswro, amJamad es adgili TiTqmis mTlianad ekal _ bardebiTaa dafaruli da mas besarion Turqia pirutyvis saZovad da SeSis mosaWrelad iyenebs.
     am adgilis Semdeg, iqeTa gayolebaze, gzis orive mxares did arxamde mosaxleobis samosaxlo, sakarmidamo anu rogorc mas sofelSi uwodeben saezoe dausaxlebeli nakveTebia (maT Soris zogierTis patroni sxva soflebidanacaa),  romlebic 90 _ iani wlebis Sua xanebSi mosaxleobas usasyidlod gadmoecaT miwebis privatizaciis Sedegad, axla zogierTi  maTgani TxmelebiT daifara (`tyed wavida~),  zogan Txilebia gaSenebuli, nawili Tavisufalia, zogic kidev patronebma SemoRobes,  mravali  maTgani  dRes yanebia. es adgilebic adre mTlianad koleqtivis yanebi iyo. miwebis azomvas gia xaJomia awarmoebs.
     qviSanWalis gzis qvemoT (marTobuli mimarTulebiT) da mimdebare yanebSi, valeri surgulaZisa da gia quTaTelaZis samosaxlo nakveTebs Soris da mis gaswvriv, qviSanWala _ gauwyinaris sazRvris bogiramde 300 metris daSorebiT, miwaSi gayvanilia msxvili, 500 mm diametris mqone magistraluri gazsadenis izolirebuli mili (`truba~),  romelic Caawyves Rrmad amoTxril miwaSi, zemodan betonis filebi daades da miwa daayares. es gazsadeni Sesabamisi teqnikis saSualebiT gaiyvanes 1982 wels. is samtrediis raionidan mdinare cxeniswylis zemoT, betonis sayrdenebis saSualebiT pirvel maisSi gadmodis, Semdeg miwaSi damarxul mdgomareobaSi Semodis gauwyinarSi, gaivlis yanebs, am adgils, qarsafars, kvlav nakveTebs da gadadis mezobel soflebSi da iqeT agrZelebs gzas. am gazsadeniT miewodeba bunebrivi gazi abaSas,  sxva raionebs, soflebsa da qalaqebs.
     rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, qviSanWalis gzas bolo nawilSi, marTobulad hkveTs didi arxi _ damba, romelic adre  patimrebs amoaTxrevines, mogvianebiT ki eqskavatoriT gaadides da daaRrmaves. es arxi udidesia Cvens sofelSi da masze ramodenime gadasasvleli bogiria mowyobili. mas iqeT, qviSanWalis mxares miuyveba xreSiani gza, romelic am arxTan erTad pirveli maisis bolodan iwyeba. iq axlos aris masze gadasasvleli bogiri, moemarTeba aqeT, hkveTs qviSanWalis gzas aseve bogiris qvemoT gavliT (am adgilidan cota moSorebiT Cans qviSanWalis axlad aSenebuli wminda giorgis eklesia), Semdeg ki masze gadebul kidev erT gadasasvlel bogirs, romelsac kirkalis bogiri ewodeba, Semdeg es arxi da gza uerTdeba melioraciis mier agebul yofil wyalsatumb sadgurs (yofil patara `butkas~, wyalsaqaCs), is axla mTlianadaa dangreuli, romelic qviSanWalis bogiridan 2,5 kilometriTaa daSorebuli. aqedan Zalian iSviaTad wyals gvalvis dros tumboebisa da msxvili, 60 santimetriani milebis,  `trubebis~ saSualebiT rionidan dambaSi uSvebdnen da sasoflo _ sameurneo nakveTebs rwyavdnen; bolos es arxi rions uerTdeba, gzac iqeT grZeldeba. es obieqti bolos daangries, milebi da mowyobilobebi daWres da waiRes, betonebCadgmuli auzi ki dRemdea SemorCenili. pirveli maisidan moyolebuli kirkalis bogiramde, arxis da gzis es monakveTi gauwyinar _ qviSanWalis sazRvaria. bogiris Semdeg ki arxisa da gzis gadaRmac rionamde gauwyinaris yanebia ganfenili, maT rionis maxlobel Cadablebas Wala ewodeba, aseve am midamoebSi yanebis mcire monakveTs kapetebs eZaxian.
    iq, sadac mTavar gzas qviSanWalisken mimavali gza gamoeyofa, misi dasawyisidan 1,1 kilometr monakveTze, soflis centrSi mosaxleobis mier aSenebulia berketis mcire zomis winidan nawilobriv Ria Senoba _ birJa, romelic winidan galesilia, is TunuqiT, liTonis talRovani furclebiTaa gadaxuruli da wina mxares Semowyobili aqvs betonis filebi (e.w. `bordiurebi~); aqvea magida da dasajdomi adgili. aq soflis macxovreblebi Tavisufal dros xSirad ikribebian, saubroben politikaze, warsulsa da awymoze, soflis saWirboroto sakiTxebze, isveneben, TamaSoben ZiriTadad banqos (karts, umetesad `furTs~ (TerTmetobanas), axalgazrdebi ki aseve `jokersac~, iSviaTad dominosac) da erTobian. aqvea avtobusis gaCerebac (`astanovka~). birJis Senobis erT mxares 1994 wels mosaxleobis mier darguli Wadaria,  meore mxares ki iago Turqias mier 2000 wels darguli muxa. am Wadris ZirTan axlos betonis zodi devs, romelzec xalxi jdeba.
     mis ukan ki gauwyinaris yofili leninis saxelobis kolmeurneobis kantora da ezoa. is 40 _ ian wlebamde cnobili revolucioneris, mixa cxakaias saxelobis iyo.  am ezoSi adre xis kantora idga, Semdeg is daSales da iqve axlos 1973 wels qvis (gareTa mxare tufis gaTlili qvebis, SigniTa kedlebi ki agurisaa) kantora aaSenes, romelic 1 metris simaRlis fundamentze idga da Siferis gadaxurva hqonda. iq iyo mowyobili oTaxebi, kabinetebi, sadac muSaobda molare, buRalteri, statistikosi, damlagebeli  liana aSveTia (manamde ki venera TedoraZe, luba janjRava) daraji (yarauli) guram SaTiriSvili da SoTa fircxalava. aq momuSaveTa nawili igive iyo vinc axal kantoraSi muSaobda. sxvadasxva dros kolmeurneobis Tavmjdomareebi iyvnen galaqtion arvelaZe, kapiton gogiSvili, galaqtion Todua, iulia dundua, kolia CargeiSvili, daviT melia, karlo grigolia, konstantine qunTelia, WiWiko dundua, Salva vasaZe, sergo ratiani (Tavmjdomared muSaobda 1954 _ 1970 wlebSi), robert ratiani (1970 _ 1982ww.), Teimuraz dundua (1982 _ 1985ww.), isev robert ratiani (1985 _ 1990ww.), vaJa kopaleiSvili (1990 _ 1991ww.) (iyvnen sxva Tavmjdomareebic). bolo Tavmjdomare aqac iyo igive malxaz Turqia (1991 _ dan kolmeurneobis daSlamde, 1994 wlamde). axal kantoraSi gadatanamde aq iyo ganTavsebuli soflis biblioTekac, romlis gamge Jenia frangiSvili iyo. kantoras ukana mxares hqonda patara darbazi, erT oTaxSi ki satelefono sadguri (ats) moawyves, romelic soflis maSindel satelefono qsels emsaxureboda. mogvianebiT kantora zemoT naxseneb axal SenobaSi ganaTavses,  es Senoba ki nawilobriv mainc moqmedebda. mis gverdiT 1993 wlis 23 oqtombers, samoqalaqo omis dros, RamiT aqac Camovarda Wurvi, ris Sedegadac Senoba dazianda. es Senoba kolmeurneobis daSlasTan erTad nel _ nela ganadgurda da dRes mxolod misi kedlebi da wina mxares darguli TuTis xeebia SemorCenili.
     am kantoris ezoSi iyo Zveli xis sawyobi,  romelic daingra. adre aq iyo gadmotanili zemoT naxsenebi qaTmebis fermac. aseve ezos wina mxares, skolis Robis gverdiT agebuli iyo berketis meore sawyobi, sadac `nasipad~ Rebulobdnen qatos da sxva produqtebs. Semdeg ukana mxares aages didi rkinis sawyobi, romelic garedan dafaruli iyo furclovani SiferiT. iq inaxavdnen koleqtivis yanebSi moweul didi raodenobiT siminds, xaxvs, Warxals (boloks) da sxva Wirnaxuls. hqondaT simindis eleqtrosafSvneli (dasaTes siminds ki xeliT fSvnidnen, raTa marcvlebi safSvnelis kbilanebs ar daezianebinaT) da sxva mowyobilobebi. bolos es sawyobic daSales da gayides.  maT garda kolmeurneobas kidev ekuTvnoda soflis meRoreobisa da mesaqonleobis fermebi, soflteqnikis ezo da mTeli saxnav _ saTesi miwebi.
     ufro adre, am adgilis wina mxares iyo patara xis saparikmaxero, sadac parikmaxerad aqvsent grigolia muSaobda. mogvianebiT is dRevandel avtobusis gaCerebasTan gadmoitanes da iq parikmaxeri jer vaxtang (vaxto) Turqias mama, konstantine (kolia) Turqia iyo, Semdeg ki zestafoneli andro.  90 _ ian  wlebSi aqve  axlos,  qviSanWalis gzis mxares zaza Turqiasa da vaxtang goToSias kuTvnili,  betonis filebze mdgar patara vagonSi ganTavsebuli  kooperativi, komerciuli maRazia iyo, sadac gamyidvelad sxvadasxva dros nana janjRava, nana surgulaZe   da Sorena aSveTia muSaobdnen.
     kantoris ezo sul adre eklebiT iyo SemoRobili, Semdeg ki Robe gaaumjobeses. momdevno wlebSi ki is winidan liTonis talRovani furclebiT SemoRobes, romelsac maRaziasTan patara Casasvleli kari hqonda,  danarCeni gverdi da ukana mxare ki 8 milimetri diametrisa da 7 santimetris ujrebis mqone  mavTulbadiT iyo SemoRobili,  romelic Tavis mxriv 1,3 metri simaRlisa da 2,5 metri siganis `ugolnikebiT~ Sekrul marTkuTxa CarCoebSi iyo Casmuli, romlebsac zemoT figurebi hqondaT. adre am ezos didi WiSkaric  hqonda oTar janjRavas saxlis win. aq sasoflo _ sameurneo teqnikis simravle iyo: sxvadasxva markisa da tipis kombainebi, traqtorebi (`belarusi~,  `mtz~,  k _ 701,  `dt~,  `t _ 150~, muxluxebiani (`cefebiani~) da sxva)  da satvirTo avtomobilebi, `belarusis~ cicxviani (`komSiani~) eqskavatori (es eqskavatori dResac hyavs roman surgulaZes, romliTac mravali gauwyinareli da sxva sofleli sargeblobs arxis amosaRebad, cementis misive `baiokSi~ mosazelad da `ploSadis~ dasasxmelad, mosavlis `lafetiT~ wamosaRebad,  simZimis asawevad da gadasatanad Tu sxva saqmeebisaTvis), sawamlavi manqanebi, guTnebi, saTesebi, kultivatorebi, farcxebi, diskebi, saTadarigo nawilebi, asawevi meqanizmi (e.w. `tali~), didi, satvirTo manqanebis saswori, sawvavis avzebi, aseve mudmivi Sroma da garja am (da aseve sxva) adgilebis ganuyofeli simboloebi iyo. kantoris gverdiT didi xe idga, mis qvemoT ki `skameikebi da stoli~ dadges. adre axlandel birJasTanac iyo maRali xe, romelic mere moWres da misgan farcxi gaakeTes. aq, imdroindel kolmeurneobaSi mezobeli soflebidanac muSaobdnen meqanizatorebi, mZRolebi, gamremonteblebi, agronomi, muSebi. bolo dros meqanizatorebi (traqtoristebi) iyvnen: adgilobrivebi _ vitali rurua, Saqro quTaTelaZe, romani surgulaZe, satvirTo avtomanqanis (`kamazis~) mZRoli robert (demuri) janjRava, avtobusis mZRoli gulTaS ratiani da sxvebi; sxva soflebidan da abaSidan meqanizatorebi iyvnen: gia (gialo) gegeSiZe, zaur zaqraZe, mogel mindaZe, rezo migineiSvili, noSrevan, emzar (gulwiTela) da nodar gabelaiebi, mamuka TedoraZe, gamremontebeli nukri lasareiSvili, sawyobis gamge jondo Todua (adre gamgeebi iyvnen  akaki Tofuria,  buWa surgulaZe, Jora SalvaZe)  da sxvebi, ufro adre ki aq sxva mravali adamiani muSaobda. koleqtivSi muSebi gaerTianebuli iyvnen ramodenime brigadaSi, romlebsac brigadirebi xelmZRvanelobdnen, kerZod: jemal Todua, ivane arvelaZe, mamia janaSia, murman SaTiriSvili, bondo loria. yanebSi dadiodnen meveleebi (magaliTad sergo xaJomia, SoTa koxreiZe, kowia grigolia), romlebic mas pirutyvisagan mwyemsavdnen. koleqtivSi da sxvaganac warmatebul muSebs aZlevdnen fulad premiebs, sigelebs, medlebs, zogjer maT gazeTebSic werdnen, iSviaTad televiziiTac gamoaqveynes. maSin komunisturi partiis wevroba TiTqmis savaldebulo iyo. imdroindel kolmeurneobis farTobebSi mravali saxis mosavali mohyavdaT: umetesad simindi, aseve Wvavi, Svria, xaxvi, Warxali (boloki), kitri, pomidori, lobio, rehani, gerani, bazeliki; ufro adre ki bamba da rami, romelTac kolmeurneebi uvlidnen da maT SromadRes, xelfass uwerdnen. Sromis meti wili meqanizebuli iyo, ramodenimejer yanebSi sasuqi Sesaferisi TviTmfrinavebiTac ki moayares, romlebic abaSis asafreni zolidan mofrinavdnen. farTod gamoiyeneboda azotiani, fosforiani da kaliumiani sasuqebi, herbicidebi, Sxam _ qimikatebi da mcenareTa dacvisa da movlis sxva saSualebebi. nakveTebSi da kolmeurneobis kantoris ezoSi drogamoSvebiT skolis moswavleebic dahyavdaT samuSaod. soflelebs yanebi gapirovnebuli hqondaT, romelTac koleqtivi xnavda, farcxavda, diskavda, Tesavda, akultivaciebda, sasuqs ayrida, patronebi ki Toxnida da mosavals iRebda. siminds yanebSi texavdnen da ramodenime dRiT konebisagan mowyobil did kaloebSi inaxavdnen, Calas ki iqve zvinavdnen. rodesac traqtori moiclida da mas Tavmjdomare nebas darTavda, masze mibmul `lafets~ datvirTavdnen da mosavali sawyobis ezoSi mihqondaT. koleqtivSi momuSaveT dawesebuli hqondaT gegma, e. w. minimumi, romliTac gaTvaliswinebuli raodenobis mosavals Tu ver moiyvandnen, maSin mTel mosavals (simindi, Cala) koleqtivSi Caabarebdnen, xolo Tu am gegmas gadaaWarbebdnen, am SemTxvevaSi namatis 30% _ s Sin gaatandnen, danarCens kolmeurneobaSi daatovebinebdnen. 80 _ iani wlebidan ki es wesi abaSis maSindelma raikomis mdivanma, guram mgelaZem Secvala da kolmeurneebs moweuli mosavlis naxevars aZlevdnen,  mxolod maT garkveuli raodenobis yveli Tu xorci unda mieyida saxelmwifosaTvis, es wesi aseve sxva drosac ramdenadme Secvlila; yovelive aRniSnuli mosaxleobaSi garkveul ukmayofilebas iwvevda. 70 _ ian wlebSi eduard SevardnaZis iniciativiT abaSasa da foTSi ganxorcielda e. w. abaSisa da foTis eqsperimentebi, romlis drosac mosaxleobas kerZo sakuTrebaSi misces miwebi da cxovelebi, rasac garkveuli mniSvneloba hqonda maSindel periodSi. sawyobis Senobebsa da ezoSi dayrili mosavlis nawili (simindi, xaxvi) fuWdeboda da usiamovno suni da orTqli asdioda. erTxel samuSaos Sesrulebis dros avtoamwe  (`amwekrani~) gadabrunda da misi mZRoli imsxverpla, aseve iyo sxvaTa daSavebisa da Sxam _ qimikatebiT mowamvlis SemTxvevebic. bolo xanebSi ezos wina WiSkari gaauqmes,  samagierod ukan didi sagoravi WiSkari daayenes, saidanac teqnika moZraobda. mis gverdiT ki patara,DdarajisTvis gankuTvnili blokis Senoba iyo, romelSic aseve eleqtroSeduRebis (`svarkis~) aparati inaxeboda. mis ukan ki arteziuli Wa funqcionirebda.
     aq winaT,  80 _ ian wlebamde sawyobisa da maRaziis kedlebze gakrul ekranze RamiT, Ria cis qveS kinofilmebs atarebdnen, romelsac soflis mosaxleoba interesiT Sescqeroda.  maSin kinomeqanikosebi iyvnen ivliane kaWarava,  Semdeg tite (titiko) CxaiZe (oriveni abaSidan iyvnen), aseve leri anakiZe (marneli). imdroindeli filmebi Zalian grZel, gamWvirvale daxveul lentebze iyo Cawerili erTmaneTisagan mcired gansxvavebuli naxatebiani kadrebis saxiT, es xveuli saTanado kinoaparatSi brunavda da mZlavri naTuriT misi moZravi gamosaxuleba linzebis gavliT ekranze efineboda, am dros xmac ismoda.  denis Semosvlamde kinoebs eleqtrogeneratoriT uCvenebdnen. bolos ki filmebi ukve axali kantoris darbazSi tardeboda.
     1991 wels, saqarTvelos damoukideblobis gamocxadebisa da ssrk _ is daSlis Semdeg wlebSi,  qveyanaSi Seqmnilma socialur _ ekonomikurma krizisma, omebma da saerTod maSindelma mdgomareobam rogorc mTeli qveynis masStabiT, aseve Cvens sofelSic daangria da gaapartaxa kolmeurneoba (1994 wels),  teqnikis nawili Seisyides, nawili ki daimsxvra da miiTvises. sawyobebi daangries, wina mxares mdgari berketis sawyobi marina Toduam Seisyida da daSala da waiRo. bolos Seiqmna agrofirma, romelic formalurad amxanagobis saxeliT dResac arsebobs, mas sofelSi nakveTebic aqvs, misi xelmZRvanelia karlo guguSvili (abaSidan). ezos irgvliv Semovlebuli mavTulbade axsnes da dainawiles, xolo wina liTonis RobiT sasaflaos wina mxaris nawili SemoRobes. aq bolo dromde SemorCenili iyo xeliT sabrunebeli asawevi meqanizmi,  e.w. `tali~,  WaburRilis miwaSi Casobili mili, aseve maRaziisa da sawyobebis nangrevebi (isini mcire xnis win gawmindes,  rasac Semdeg gavecnobiT). am teritoriaze saukuneTa mijnaze soflis axalgazrdebma darges wiwvovani da foTlovani mcenareebis nergebi, magram isini pirutyvma daaziana da dRes aq mxolod  tirifebi,  Wadrebi da alvis xea gaxarebuli,  eklebiani  xe  (grekali) da Wadari ki axlaxans moWres,  aseve aq ama wlis bolos,  dekemberSi, skolisaken sam mwkrivad  darges nosiridan motanili feixoias nergebi, Robis gayolebaze ki wiwvovanebi. gadaRma, gzis kideebSi ki Caqvidan Camotanili evkaliptis nergebi, romlebsac garSemo eklebi Semoavles pirutyvisagan dacvis mizniT (maT qvemoT ganvixilavT).
     dRevandeli sasaflaos wina mxares, skolisaken xis maRazia iyo, am dros gzac ramdenadme gansxvavebulad mdebareobda, Semdeg is dRevandeli skolis ezos teritoriaze, wina adgilas, koleqtivis ezos mxares aaSenes, sadac gamyidvelad nina fircxalava (murman fircxalavas mamida, vova SublaZis aRmzrdeli) muSaobda. daaxloebiT 50 _ ian wlebidan is kantoris ezoSi gadaitanes, isic xis Senoba iyo da iq gamyidvelad grigol kalandaZe  (Tengiz kalandaZis mama) muSaobda, Semdeg Temur surgulaZis deda _ Tina gogiSvili (iyo sxva gamyidvelebic, magaliTad lola goToSia). mogvianebiT aq leila grigoliam daiwyo muSaoba. maRazia mcire xans oTar janjRavas Zvel, boknebian saxlSic iyo ganTavsebuli. 1968 wels ki mTavari gzis piras kapitaluri maRazia aages, romelsac ukan sawyobi oTaxi hqonda. iqac leila grigolia muSaobda gamyidvelad. maRaziaSi yoveldRiurad modioda axali, xarisxiani `buxanka~ puri (seri, TeTri, `tricatka~), aqve SeiZleboda mravali saxis sursaTis, safeiqro nawarmis, teqnikisa da nivTebis SeZenac. kantoris gverdiT Camovardnilma bombma maRaziac daaziana. leila grigolias Semdeg noqari misi qmari guli janaSia iyo, Semdeg ki jondo da meri Toduebi; 90 _ iani wlebis bolos, roca qveyanaSi areuloba daiwyo, Cvens maRaziaSic sursaT _ sanovage dacarielda da daixura, bolos is daSales da gayides.  komunistebis mmarTvelobis miwuruls, maSindeli maRaziis win moewyo SimSilobis aqciis imitacia ZiriTadad sofelSi asfaltis dagebis moTxovniT,  rac nawilobriv dakmayofilda kidec.
     yofili maRaziis adgilas amJamad liTonis jvaria (wminda ninos jvari). is mosaxleobis SemowirulobebiTa da TanadgomiT aRimarTa 2006 wlis 21 aprils, wiTel paraskevs,  romelic akurTxa mama egnatem 2007 wlis 18 noembers. is damzadebulia 90 mm. diametrisa da 6 metri simaRlis liTonis milisgan,  romlis vertikalurad mdgari monakveTi badri Turqiasagan SeviZineT, xolo gverdebi ki gia grigoliam (pirvel maiselma) gvaCuqa (romlebic samtrediaSi tariel surgulaZem migvatanina cxeniTa da orTvaliT, `kaWkiT~) pirveli maisis wminda giorgis saxelobis mSenebare eklesiis gaTlil qvebTan erTad, romlebiTac jvris fundamentia agebuli. es jvari, romelic figurebiTa da sami patara jvariTaa Semkobili, valeri surgulaZem daamzada samtrediaSi, Teimuraz (Tamaz) axobaZis saamqroSi (`cexSi~), sadac is muSaobda. jvari aq roman surgulaZis motociklis TviTnakeTi misabmeliT (`pricepiT~) moabrZanes, romelic imedo Turqias avtomanqanaze iyo mibmuli da im dResve aRmarTes,  winaswar gamzadebul 1 metri simaRlis fundamentSi (is Teimuraz, nikandro WiqaSuam aago sxvaTa daxmarebiT) Casves da Caabetones. Semdeg dReebSi ki is oqrosfer _ yviTlad SeRebes, agurebis fena (mis irgvliv garedan naeklesiari qvebis namsxvrevebia Semowyobili) da Casasvleli qvis biliki daages gauwyinaris yofili eklesiis da sxva qvebiT, aseve mavTulbadiT SemoRobes, romelic figurebiTaa Semkobili, xolo mis 9 cal samagr armaturis Tavebze  aseve figurebia damagrebuli (es agurebisa da qvebis fena bilikianad da aseve SemoRobva Semdeg moSales am adgilas Robis gatarebis gamo, rasac qvemoT gavecnobiT). aqve aris jvargamosaxuli da figurebamokveTili (anTebuli sanTelis da vazis mtevnis gamosaxulebiani) qva asomTavruli warweriT: `ufalo Segviwyalen~. aq miwaSi, fundamentSi (mas ukan TariRi aweria, zemoT ki sanTlebis asanTebi adgili aqvs) da jvarSi moTavsebulia Semdegi siwmindeebi: wminda samebis,  metexis, sionis, sveticxovelis,  samTavros, bagratis, gelaTis, pirveli maisis (yofili saWilaos) mSenebare da gauwyinaris yofili eklesia _ monastrebis qva, miwa da wyali. agreTve mama gabrielis saflavis miwa da iqve madlgardmosuli saswaulmoqmedi sakurnebeli wminda zeTi, macxovris saflavidan (ierusalimidan) yvavili, zeTi da sakmeveli; amave uflis saflavze saswaulebrivad gardmosul cecxlze Tavmomwvari, wminda mama gerasimes lavraSi Camoqnili wminda sanTeli (isini Tbilisidan, mcxeTidan da sxva adgilebidan moitanes),  aseve oqro da vercxli. komunistebis epoqaSi cxadia jvrebis aRmarTvaze fiqric ki ar SeiZleboda.
     zemoT xsenebuli biblioTeka Zvel kantoramde luba janjRavas saxlSi iyo ganTavsebuli, biblioTekarad iqac Jenia frangiSvili muSaobda.
     nikoloz gogiSvils wina RobesTan jixuri aqvs Cadgmuli, sadac is adre sxvadasxva nawarms yidda. masve saxlSi cota xans hqonda patara wisqvilic.
     kantoris ezos iqeT, sadac centralur gzas gamoeyofa meore quCasTan SemaerTebeli gza,  aris gauwyinaris skola.
     rogorc irkveva Cvens sofelSi Zvel droSic yofila bavSvebisaTvis swavla _ ganaTlebis miRebis tradiciuli forma _ skola, romelic mdebareobda dRevandeli skolis Senobis Crdilo _ aRmosavleT mxares, ramdenime aTeuli metris daSorebiT, yofili kolmeurneobis kantoris ezoSi. is skola oTxwliani iyo da mas `qarTvelTa Soris wera _ kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba exmareboda ilia WavWavaZis xelmZRvanelobiT. am da Tanamedrove skolis adgilas sul adre Tavisufali adgilebi iyo, sadac zogjer fexburTs TamaSobdnen. aq wvimis dros wyali dgeboda da gareuli frinvelebi jdebodnen.
     daaxloebiT 1930 wels am teritoriaze axladSeqmnili kolmeurneobis obieqtebi ganTavsda, is skola daSales da savaraudod  droebiT erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi soflis erT _ erTi macxovreblis saxlSi ganaTavses. mis mgivrad axali xis skola aaSenes Tanamedrove skolis ukana mxares, iq sadac amJamad kalaTburTis moedania,  2 Ziri maRali palmis ukan. is Zvel skolasTan SedarebiT ufro didi da srulyofili iyo. sxva werilobiTi cnobebi (skolis pasporti da brZanebis wignebi) ki am skolis agebis TariRad 1910 wels asaxelebs, magram romelia amaTgan swori,  dRes amis Tqma Znelia. mis asagebad gamoiyenes amave periodSi komunistur _ aTeisturi reJimis mier gauwyinaris sasaflaoze dangreuli eklesiis masala, am skolaSi dakides amave eklesiis zarebi, xolo misi iatakis gaTlili qvebi skolis saval bilikebad gamoiyenes, romlebic dagebuli iyo WiSkridan  skolamde da aseve sxvaganac. amave qvebiT iyo agebuli burjebic (boknebic), romlebzec skola idga da maTi simaRle daaxloebiT 1,4 metri iyo. am qvebis nawili Semdeg axali skolis fundamentSic (saZirkvelSic) Caayoles, nawili ki ezoSi da mis gareTac gaifanta. es skolac oTxwliani iyo da mas mTavari da aseve skolis ukana samanqano gzis paraleluri mdebareoba ekava.
     daaxloebiT 1946 wels am skolas Crdilo _ aRmosavleT mxares, gzis marTobuli mimarTulebiT, win moxveuli mdebareobiT, kidev miuSenes SedarebiT mcire zomis Senoba,  romlis  oTaxebis xarjzec skolas kidev moemata ramodenime oTaxi da is 7 wlianad gadaakeTes, am minaSenis masalad gamoiyenes abaSis raionis maSindeli sofel kadaris (dRes ukve nasoflaria Zveli abaSis TemSi) mosaxleobis sacxovrebeli saxlebi, romelTa patronebic sxva TanasoflelebTan erTad, lavrenti berias iniciativiT qveynis maSindelma xelmZRvanelebma erT RameSi aasaxles da afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikis teritoriaze, gulrifSis raionis sofel drandaSi Caasaxles iq qarTvelTa demografiuli mdgomareobis gamosworebis mizniT (drandaSi cixidan 1 kilometris daSorebiT aris maTi dasaxleba, romelsac xalxi mSobliuri raionis saxelis ukvdavsayofad `saabaSos~ eZaxis). es masala Cvens sofelSi adgilobrivma macxovreblebma urmebiT Semozides. skolaSi moswavleTa ZiriTad kontingents Seadgendnen gauwyinarSi, qviSanWalaSi da nawilobriv  pirvel maisSi (grigoliebis quCis) macxovrebeli bavSvebi (`baRnebi~). am skolaSi pirveli qarTulis gakveTili Caatara cnobilma qarTvelma moRvawem grigol abaSiZem.
     1946 wels (aseve sxva cnobis mixedviT 1934 wels) ki im skolis aRmosavleTis mxaris erT _ erTi oTaxi Suaze gadakedles da amis xarjze skola 8 wliani gaxda, mas saxelad gauwyinaris rvawliani skola uwodes,  manamde ki mas gauwyinaris arasrul saSualo skolas uwodebdnen. Zvel skolaSi samaswavleblo da direqtoris kabineti samxreT _ dasavleTis mxaris bolos, erTmaneTis gverdiT iyo ganlagebuli.  skolaSi yvela oTaxi cal (ukana) mxareze iyo (garda direqtoris kabinetisa) da maT win Ria derefani mdebareobda,  romelzec Sua adgilas wina mxridan ramodenimeTvliani kibe iyo midgmuli. derefanSi gakruli iyo warCinebul moswavleTa stendi, lozungi, kedlis gazeTi da sainformacio kuTxe. skolis Senoba daaxloebiT 60 _ 70-ian wlebamde kramitiT iyo daxuruli, Semdeg ki mas Siferi daaxures. es Senoba 1981 wlis zafxulSi gaaremontes. skolaBbuxrebiT, mogvianebiT SeSis RumelebiTac Tbeboda. iqve iyo pionerTa oTaxi Tavisi aRWurvilobiT. ezoSi ki funqcionirebda bufeti, romelSic gamyidvelad mayvala qunTelia, bolos ki nani gaxokiZe  muSaobda (iq TiTqmis yoveldRe  Sesaferisi didi manqaniT mohqondaT purebi,  funTuSebi (bulkebi),  `korJikebi~, kanfetebi, limonaTebi da sxva tkbileuli, axali skolis bufetSi (sadac sasadilo oTaxic iyo, dRevandel SeSis dasayrel oTaxSi) ki wvnian kerZebsac amzadebdnen, iq hqondaT didi macivari, romelic dResac Senaxulia da gazqura), aseve Zveli skolis ezoSi iyo Ria sportuli moedani, saxelosno, beReli, da sxva obieqtebi. garda amisa aq 60 _ ian wlebSi  gaburRes maRali xarisxis,  300 metri siRrmis arteziuli Wa, romelic  dResac mwyobrSia da yvelaze Rrmaa mTels sofelSi. misi wyliT adre mosaxleobac sargeblobda. am adgilis maxloblad iyo skolis ezoSi Casasvleli karebi. ukana ezoSi hqondaT SemoRobili saskolo nakveTi, sadac bavSvebi Sromis gakveTilze Sromobdnen,  gamwvanebuli iyo ezoc, sadac xarobda palmebi,  Wadrebi (maTi nawili dResac aris),  buCqebi da sxva mcenareebi.
     1966 wlis ivnisSi sofel gauwyinarSi CairTo eleqtrodeni da ganaTebul iqna skolac,  ramac mniSvnelovanwilad Seuwyo xeli mis Semdgom ganviTarebas.
     Zvel skolaSic aqtiurad mimdinareobda saswavlo procesi, ewyoboda sxvadasxva saxis RonisZiebebi: I klasidan moswavleebs iRebdnen oqtombrelTa,  IV klasidan pionerul, VIII klasidan ki komkavSirul organizaciebSi. skolaSi iyo pionerxelmZRvaneli (meri gogiSvili, lali anakiZe, bolos, axal skolaSi medea xubua), pionerTa razmeuli. oqtombrel bavSvebs mkerdze ekeTaT liTonisagan damzadebuli wiTeli xuTqimiani varskvlavi (`broSka~), romlis centrSi vladimer leninis (ulianovis) bavSvobis saxis suraTi iyo, pionerebis simbolod ki wiTeli samkuTxa yelsaxvevi iqca, erTxans maTac hqondaT samkerde niSani _ xuTqimian varskvlavSi (romelsac zemoT samwveriani ali asdioda) Caxatuli leninis saxe gverdidan. komkavSirelebs aseve mkerdze ekeTaT aseve liTonis patara droSis niSani, romelzec leninis saxe iyo gamosaxuli gverdiTa xedSi. moswavleebs skolis forma ecvaT: biWebs muqi lurji feris Sarval _ kostumi (kostums xSirad marcxena mklavze TeTri niSani hqonda) TeTri perangiT (`saroCkiT~), maT didi Tmis tarebis uflebas ar aZlevdnen;  gogonebs  Savi kaba da TeTri zeda emosaT,  Tmebze ki TeTri bafTa (banti) ekeTaT. skolaSi ewyoboda eqskursiebi sxvadasxva saxis RirsSesaniSnaobebis (istoriuli Zeglebis, muzeumebis, gamoCenil moRvaweTa saxl _ muzeumebis, kulturuli obieqtebisa da samecniero _ teqnikur miRwevaTa) dasaTvaliereblad. moswavleebi xelmZRvanelebTan erTad gamoscemdnen kedlis gazeTebs, monawileobdnen turebSi, gonebriv da sportul SejibrebebSi, sxvadasxva TariRebTan dakavSirebul aRlumebSi (`paradebSi~, 1 maiss, mSromelTa saerTaSoriso solidarobis dRes da 7 noembers, didi oqtombris socialisturi revoluciis dRes, saamisod bavSvebs fizkulturis maswavlebeli daviT (daTiko) jalaRonia amzadebda quCaSi mwyobrad siarulSi), karnaval _ zeimebsa da sxva RonisZiebebSi; agrovebdnen makulaturas, ekalas, jarTsa da TuTis foTlebs abreSumis gamosakvebad,  romelic maSin skolasa da moswavleTa mSoblebs ejdaT. skolaSi bavSvebi iwerdnen Jurnal _ gazeTebs: `dila~, `pioneri~ (pioneruli organizaciis daSlis Semdeg `nakaduli~),  `norCi lenineli~,  `mecniereba da teqnika~ da sxva.
     CvenTan 60 _ ian wlebamde sawerad kalami (e.w. `pero~, romelsac kalmistari hqonda) da melani gamoiyeneboda. liTonis kalmis CaWril wvers xSirad asvelebdnen melniT, romelsac samelneSi asxamdnen. Semdeg ki es kalmebi gaumjobesda, maT rezinis calmxrivad daxSuli mili hqondaT, romelSic masze xelis moWerisa da Semdgomi gaSvebiT melani Seiwoveboda da is weris dros TandaTan qvemoT, kalmis specialuri wverisken TviTdinebiT Camoedineboda, amis gamo misi dasveleba melniT saWiro ar iyo. 70 _ iani wlebis Semdeg ki pirveli avtokalmebic (`pastebi~) gamoCnda, Tumca maTi intensiurad gamoyeneba skolebSi mxolod 80 _ iani  wlebis  Semdeg  daiwyes. avtokalami ungrelma msaxiobma da Jurnalistma laslo binom gamoigona 1930 wels, misi warmoeba daiwyo 1940 welidan argentinaSi, buenos _ airesSi.
     skolaSi sul adre swavla mcire xans fasiani iyo. Semdeg ki gadasaxadi gaauqmes. saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebsac moswavleebs saswavlo wlis dasawyisSi ufasod urigebdnen,  xolo wlis bolos mas isev skola daibrunebda da momaval wels sxva moswavleebs gadascemda. zogjer ewyoboda komunisturi SabaTobebi (ufro sworad kviraobebi,  vinaidan maSin SabaTs swavla iyo),  romlis drosac bavSvebi da maswavleblebi skolis ezos alagebdnen, rgavdnen nergebs, awesrigebdnen Senobasac. gasakviri ar aris, rom im periodSi saskolo cxovrebas rusuli ideologiis kvali etyoboda.
     gavida sakmao dro da ukve daZvelebuli, xis patara skolis nacvlad saWiro gaxda axali, Tanamedrove kapitaluri skola.  misi mSenebloba daiwyes 1988 wels. maSindeli cxakaiis (dRevandeli senakis) samSeneblo organizaciis xelmZRvanelobiTa da adgilobrivi muSaxelis daxmarebiT 1989 wlis seqtemberSi Cvenma sofelma izeima axali, orsarTuliani, rkina _ betonis filebiT (`sinkarebiT~) agebuli da SiferiT gadaxuruli (masSi asasvlelebia datanebuli), eleqtroficirebuli skolis Senobis gaxsna,  romelic aaSenes Zveli skolis wina mxares da dResac es skola funqcionirebs. misi Senobis sasargeblo moculoba 4490 kuburi metria, romelsac miwaze 750 kvadratuli metri farTobi ukavia. zustad aseTive skolis Senoba aqvs cxinvalis raionis  sofel aCabeTs. is Zveli skola ki  daSales da gayides.
     amave periods daemTxva respublikaSi swavlebis 11 wliani gegmis ganxorcieleba (manamde swavla saSualo ganaTlebis misaRebad 10 saswavlo wels grZeldeboda): bavSvebi VII klasidan pirdapir IX klasSi gadaiyvanes VIII klasis gauvlelad, amiT ganxorcielda e.w. `naxtomi~. axali skola gaxsnisTanave gadakeTda 9 wlianad da mas ewoda `gauwyinaris arasruli saSualo skola~.
     es skola 1,6 metris simaRlis fundamentze dgas. masSi pirvel sarTulze sul 16 oTaxia, kerZod: I _ IV klasebi,  musikis kabineti pianinoTi, biblioTekis nawili, bufeti, saaqto darbazi, darajis oTaxi, maRalWeriani, saWiro inventariT aRWurvili didi sportuli darbazi, is skolis Senobis aRmosavleT mxaresaa midgmuli ukan moxveuli mimarTulebiT, romlis SesasvlelTan xelmarcxniv aris fizkulturis maswavleblisa da tansacmlis gamosacvleli (moswavleebisaTvis fizkulturis formis Casacmeli) oTaxebi. amave sarTulze aris Semosasvleli (sadac gakrulia skolis matianes, warCinebul moswavleTa da sxva stendebi, sainformacio dafa da xatebis kuTxe) da damxmare saTavsoebi. skolas gverdidan da uknidan kidev aqvs ramodenime karebi, saaqto (is axlaxans amoaSenes) da sportul darbazebSi, aivanSi da SeSebis sawyob (sadac adre bufeti iyo) oTaxSi Semosasvlelad. adre funqcionirebda garderobic, romelsac mzevinar naWyebia (kutaiwereli) xelmZRvanelobda, saskolo biblioTekis gamge ki izolda (izo) grigolia iyo.
     meore sarTulze ganTavsebulia V _ IX klasebi (adre klasebisa da kabinetebis ganawileba oTaxebSi ramdenadme gansxvavdeboda dRevandelisagan), samaswavleblo (televizoriTa da magTi fiqsis usadeno telefoniT), lurji minebis filebis kedliani direqtoris kabineti (is adre pirvel sarTulze iyo, sadac axla nana anakiZis klasis oTaxia da iq sakabelo telefonic idga), saTanado materialur _ teqnikuri baziT, masalebiTa da sxva saWiro inventariT aRWurvili fizikis, qimiisa da biologiis gaerTianebuli laboratoria, romelic 2009 wels moewyo. 2007 wlis bolos skolas `irmis naxtomis~ programiT usasyidlod gadmoeca 4 kompiuteri, samaswavleblos gverdiTa oTaxSi moewyo maTi kabineti (merxebi pirveli maisis skolam gadmogvca, romlebic daTo Turqiam mogvatanina cxeniTa da `kaWkiT~), rac didi nabiji iyo Tanamedrove ganaTlebisaken mimaval gzaze, skolaSi aseve gvaqvs abaSis saarCevno olqidan naTxovari qseroqsi, rac sakmaod saWioro xelsawyoa. kompiuterebis oTaxis kar _ fanjrebis gisosebi sxvaTa daxmarebiT murman (muriko) fircxalavam daamzada (`dasvarka~) oleg ratianis saxlSi da adgilze Casva. skolaSi kompiuterebis (informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebi _ ist) maswavlebeli da araoficialuri sainformacio menejeri laSa surgulaZea. manamde SenobaSi xelaxla gamoiyvanes eleqtrodenis moSlili sadenebi (`Snurebi~). yvela klassa da saswavlo oTaxSi aris maswavleblis magida,  merxebi,  dafa, karadebi, fardebdakidebuli didi Seminuli fanjrebi, qoTnis yvavilebi, sanagve yuTebi, suraTebi, TvalsaCinoebebi da xatebis kuTxe. aseve meore sarTulzea soflis biblioTekis ZiriTadi oTaxic. es ukanaskneli axali kantoris dangrevis gamo aq ganaTavses da mas dRemde iamze vefxvaZe  ganagebs. am samkiTxveloTi, sadac mravali wigni da Jurnal _ gazeTia, moswavleebi da soflis mosaxleoba sargeblobs, zogjer sxva soflelebic modian aq amave miznebisaTvis. aqvea aivani da sxva oTaxebi,  zemoT sul 14 oTaxia. saklaso da sxva oTaxebis umetesobaSi xis wiTlad SeRebili iatakia dagebuli, derefnebsa da sxva adgilebSi ki betonis iatakia, kedlebi da Weri mTels skolaSi aseve betonisaa (baTqaSisaa).  SenobaSi oTaxebi ganlagebulia or mwkrivad,  maT SuaSi derefania (`kalidoria~), sadac gamokrulia cnobil moRvaweTa da sxva suraTebi. Senobis sarTulebi erTmaneTs or adgilas kibeebis saSualebiT ukavSirdebian. winaT mTeli skola Tbeboda qvanaxSirze momuSave centraluri gaTbobis radiatorebiT (`atapleniebiT~),  Semdeg is moiSala da amJamad aq SeSis Rumelebia. Senobas drodadro kosmetikur remontsac ukeTeben da anaxleben inventars; bolo xans miiRes abaSis yofili prof _ teqnikumis merxebi  da skamebi,  aseve moswavlis axali, erTadgiliani 10 cali merxi  skamebiT, Zveli merxebi ki oradgiliania.
     keTilmowyobili da gamwvanebulia 7900 kvadratuli metri farTobis mqone ezo, romlis nawili moasfaltebulia, nawili ki balaxiTaa dafaruli. skolis ezos winidan Semovlebuli aqvs rkinis talRovani furclebis meseri,  mis gaswvriv 2009 wels 18 Ziri tirifi (maTi sarebi) da maT ukan naZvebi darges, aseve aq aris palmebi, dracanebi, buCqebi, yvavilebi da sxva dekoratiuli mcenareebi. aq dResac aris naxsenebi arteziuli Wa, romlidanac wyals xeliT tumbaven (aqaCaveben),  aqve aRmarTulia saqarTvelos xuTjvriani saxelmwifo droSa. ezos danarCeni ori gverdi da ukana mxare ki 1,4 metri simaRlisa da 1,8 metri siganis `ugolnikebisagan~ Sekrul marTkuTxa CarCoebSi Casmuli 2 milimetri diametrisa da 7 santimetri ujredebis (`kletkebis~)  mqone mavTulbadiTaa SemoRobili, romlebTac Ziri Cabetonebuli aqvT.  ezos winidan aqvs mTavari Semosasvleli kari da WiSkari, ukana Robeze ki zemodan adamianis gadmosasvleli kibea. ezoSi aris Zveli skolis droindeli palmis, msxlis, Wadris, Txmelas, tyemlisa da sxva xeebi, ukana mxares Txmelebi da ekal _ bardebi amovida. aq mowyobilia fexburTis, frenburTisa da kalaTburTis Ria moednebi (sadac skolis bavSvebis garda arasaswavlo dros soflis biWebic, vaJebic TamaSoben),  sarbeni bilikebi; aseve aq aris Zveli saqvabes nagebobis naSTi (`kaCigaria~, sadac adre Jani (Janiko) surgulaZe da oTar janjRava muSaobdnen),  soflis N114 transformatori, Wa, patara Senoba, maswavleblebisa da moswavleebis sapirfareSoebi (tualetebi, maT moswavleebi saWiro oTaxs eZaxian) da sxva obieqtebi. adre iyo wylis avzi (romelic jondo Toduas mihyides) da eleqtrotumbo (`nasosi~),  romlebic centraluri gaTbobisaTvis iyo saWiro. aseve Senobis kibeebis axlos mowyobili hqondaT patara meteorologiuri moedani, sadac iyo qaris siCqarisa da mimarTulebis sazomi flugeri,  meteorologiuri jixuri Sig moTavsebuli haeris temperaturis sazomi TermometriT da sxva.
     saqarTvelos damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg, Cvens skolaSic daiSala oqtombrelTa, pionerTa da komkavSirTa organizaciebi. maT nacvlad Camoyalibda da erTxans arsebobda bavSvTa organizacia `aisi~. garkveuli cvlilebebi ganicada saswavlo sagnebma da maTma Sinaarsma. ukve yofili sabWoTa kavSiris istoria, geografia da samarTalmcodneoba  amoRebul iqna swavlebidan. aseve Semovida zogierTi axali sagani (magaliTad religia), moxda sxva cvlilebebic. gasuli saukunis 90 _ ian wlebSi Cvens qveyanaSi mimdinare sxvadasxva saxis omebma, areulobebma,  aseve mZime ekonomikurma da kriminalurma situaciam Cvens skolazec iqonia uaryofiTi gavlena: skolis win Camovardnilma Wurvma daamsxvria misi minebi, Sewyda swavla, aseve  moipares ramodenime  xelsawyo, Semcirda moswavleTa raodenoba, gauaresda swavlis xarisxi, maswavlebelTa da teqnikuri personalis (damlagebeli,  daraji,  meezove) xelfasebi didxans ar gaicemoda.
     mogvianebiT gauwyinaris skolaSi ganxorcielda sxvadasxva saxis cvlilebebi: 2000 _ 2004 wlebSi skolaSi funqcionirebda kerZo, fasiani saSualo skolis X _ XI klasebi _ `inteleqti~,  mis Sesaqmnelad saWiro Tanxis nawili gauwyinaris mosaxleobaSi `Camokrifes~, aseve sxvebic dagvexmarnen,  magram Semdeg misi SenarCuneba garkveuli mizezebis (moswavleTa mcire raodenoba, swavlis safasuris arseboba) gamo ver moxerxda da skola isev 9 wliani darCa. Semdeg mas daerqva `sabazo skola~, xolo 2006 wlis Semdeg ki Cveni skolis saxelwodebaa `gauwyinaris sajaro sabazo skola~; gafarTovda misi avtonomia da ramdenadme Seicvala mmarTvelobis formac.
     amasTanave  gauwyinaris skolaSi moRvaweobda da dResac moRvaweobs mravali damsaxurebuli pedagogi.  dResdReobiT skolaSi 16 maswavlebeli muSaobs, esenia: nana anakiZe (dawyebiTi), maia Wanturia (dawyebiTi), ciala gogolaZe (dawyebiTi), indira goToSia (dawyebiTi, is wels TurqeTSi wavida da amis gamo mis adgilas maka kobaxiZe muSaobs), nina (nunu) xoneliZe (musika), spartak verulaSvili (fizkultura), laSa surgulaZe (qimia, xelovneba), meri gogiSvili (franguli), lali Tofuria (biologia, Sroma, xelovneba), manana Telia (maTematika), irma wulaZe (rusuli), medea xubua (geografia), enZela verulaSvili (istoria), fiqria Turqia (qarTuli, is amJamad dekretul SvebulebaSia da mis adgilas Tea surgulaZea),  nino (nana) megeneiSvili (qarTuli, (direqtori)), meri kapanaZe (fizika). aseve skolaSi aris cekvis kerZo fasiani wre, adre misi maswavlebeli iyo guram sixaruliZe (samtrediidan), Semdeg zurab JRenti (abaSidan),  dRes ki avTandil (avTo) Todua (sofel Zveli abaSidan), aseve kerZod amzadebs zogierT moswavles inglisurSi nino vekua (qviSanWalidan). skolaSi arCeulia sameurveo sabWo 4 maswavleblisa da 4 mSoblis SemadgenlobiT,  romlis Tavmjdomarea makrine  (maka) kobaxiZe. Cvens skolas aseve hyavs administracia _ buRalteri nino dundua (is da direqtori direqcias Seadgens) da damxmare (teqnikuri) personali: damlagebeli margalita (nana) esakia (axlaxans damlageblad misi Svili ana ratiani gaformda, adre damlageblebi iyvnen: domna, igive madona da vardo Turqiebi, guli surgulaZe, nina sturua) da daraji jemal grigolia (manamde daraji da meezove  oTar janjRava iyo, ufro adre, Zvel skolaSi guram SaTiriSvili, kidev ufro adre (sxvadasxva dros) aseve meezovebi iyvnen Janiko, vano da aleqsandre surgulaZeebi). bufetSi nani gaxokiZis Semdeg mayvala Turqia muSaobda,  2009 wlidan ki _ nana mamforiaa. adre skolaSi dadiodnen Semmowmebeli revizorebi, romlebic ZiriTadad moswavleTa codnis dones amowmebdnen. am skolaSi 1988 _ 1991 wlebSi qarTul enasa da literaturas aswavlda maia ninua (mas Tavisi sadamrigeblo klasic hyavda), romelic Semdeg mcxeTaSi monazvnad wavida deda sidonias saxeliT,  is dRes vanis eklesiaSia.
     Cveni skolis sxvadasxva drois direqtorebisa da maTi movaleobebis SemsrulebelTa arasruli sia Semdegnairad gamoiyureba: giorgi janeliZe, galina saxokia,  biZina gabelaia, biqtor RvaberiZe (is germania _ sabWoTa kavSiris omidan kapitnis CiniT dabrunda), mixeil dondua (direqtorobis wlebi 1938 _ 1939ww. istoria),  v. gigineiSvili  (1939w.), grigol janaSia (1939 _ 1940ww.), luba miqaZe (1940w. qimia, fizika, robert ratianis deda, gauwyinareli), melqisadek (griSa) ratiani (1940 _ 1941ww. istoria, geografia, oleg ratianis biZa, gauwyinareli), mixeil komaxiZe (1941 _ 1942ww. ivane komaxiZis meurve, kutaiwereli), lia SaTiriSvili (1942 _ 1943ww. rusuli, germanuli, murman SaTiriSvilis mamida, pirvel maiseli), aneta xaburzania (1943 _ 1944ww. qarTuli),  oTar janeliZe (1944 _ 1947ww. maTematika, marneli), aleqsandre kupreiSvili (1947 _ 1948ww. maTematika), lili qavTaraZe (1948 _ 1950ww. qarTuli, germanuli, murman SaTiriSvilis bicola, pirvel maiseli), zina comaia (1948w. istoria, geografia, pirvel maiseli), igive lia SaTiriSvili (1948 _ 1950ww.), SoTa (platon) janjRava (1950 _ 1953ww. marneli), avTandil fanculaia (1953 _ 1972ww. istoria, gegeWkoris (dRevandeli martvilis) raion sofel banZidan, is mdgmurad iyo jer tariel surgulaZis, Semdeg ki soso Turqias saxlSi), alalo (aliko) grigolia (1973 _ 1994ww. fizika, marneli), enZela verulaSvili (1994 _ 2004ww. istoria, pirvel maiseli), nino megeneiSvili (2004 wlidan dRemde, qarTuli, gauwyinareli, mis direqtorad mosvlas win uZRoda konfliqturi situaciebi). direqtorebi skolaSi ama Tu im sagansac aswavlidnen, maT hyavdaT moadgile _ saswavlo nawilis gamge (magaliTad alikos dros enZela verulaSvili,  nanas dros, bolos ia migineiSvili iyo).
     magram rogorc yvela, aseve Cvens skolaSic upirveles yovlisa mTavaria wesieri da ganaTlebuli Taobis aRzrdis sakiTxi. es skola Cveni soflis yvelaze didi dawesebulebaa. aq dRes 65 moswavle, 40 vaJi (biWi) da 25 gogona swavlobs (ZiriTadad gauwyinaridan, aseve qviSanWalidan da pirveli maisidan; maTgan 1 bavSvi ltolvilad iTvleba, 3 moswavle inkluziurad (janmrTelobis problemis mqonea) swavlobs, 21 ki siRaribis zRvars qvemoT myofi ojaxebidanaa). iyo dro, roca gauwyinaris skolaSi mniSvnelovnad meti raodenobis, 150 da meti moswavle  Rebulobda ganaTlebas da isini  erTxans or smend (cvlad) dadiodnen. gakveTilebis dadgomisa da gamosvlis dros (gakveTili 45 wuTiania, dasveneba ki 10 wuTiani, winaT 20 wuTiani didi dasvenebac  iyo,  diliT swavla 9 saaTze,  xolo zamTarSi 10 _ is naxevarze iwyeba da 3 saaTis Semdeg mTavrdeba, 4 _ 7 gakveTili dReSi klasebis mixedviT) morige maswavleblebi eleqtrozars, rodesac deni ar aris xelis zars rekaven (Zveli skolis eklesiis zarebi daikarga), isini meore sarTulzea, adre pirvel sarTulzec iyo denis zari. skolaSi bavSvebi dilas modian, maT wignebi, rveulebi da saskolo nivTebi (romelTac mSoblebi TviTon  yiduloben, rac garkveul sirTules warmoadgens, Tumca ukve ramodenime welia pirvelklaselebs saxelmZRvaneloebsa da CanTebs ufasod urigeben, 2010 wlis seqtemberSi ki wignebi xelmokle ojaxebis bavSvebsac ufasod gadasces) zurgisa da mxarze gadasakidebeli CanTebiT moaqvT; isini Sin swavloben gakveTilebs, asruleben saSinao davalebebs, skolaSi iTviseben maswavleblis mier axlad axsnil gakveTilebs, weren saklaso, testur, sakontrolo da laboratoriul (praqtikul) samuSaoebs; aseve isini monawileoben turebSi, konkursebSi, olimpiadebSi, sportul da sxva  RonisZiebebSi. adre diliT, Tu Sesaferisi amindi iyo, gakveTilebis dadgomamde fizkulturis maswavleblis, daTiko jalaRonias xelmZRvanelobiT skolis ezoSi dilis varjiSebi (`fizariatka~) ewyoboda. yovel klass Tavisi damrigebeli hyavs. gauwyinaris Zvel skolaSi daaxloebiT 1950 wlamde ucxo enad germanuli iswavleboda, Semdeg ki ucxo ena dRemde frangulia (saqarTvelos damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg rusulic ucxo enis saxiT iswavleba). skolaSi periodulad iwveven mSobelTa krebas, sadac mSoblebs acnobenN maTi Svilebis warmatebis,  yofa _ qcevisa da problemebis Sesaxeb,  codnis donis amaRlebisa da siZneleTa daZlevis mizniT dasaxaven Semdgomi moqmedebis gzebs.
     moswavleebi saswavlo wlis bolos xSirad abareben gamocdasa da testirebas; saaxalwlod da saswavlo wlis bolos sportdarbazSi awyoben karnavals, zeimsa da sxva sanaxaobebs. zogjer, religiur dResaswaulebze isini skolidan eklesiaSi mihyavT, aseve dadian eqskursiaze, koncertebsa da sxva Sesaferis RonisZiebebze. skolaSi drodadro cirki da gasarTobi sanaxaobebis warmomdgenebi modian.  90 _ ian wlebamde kviraSi 6 dRes swavlobdnen (kviras isvenebdnen), Semdeg ki 5 _ dRian swavlebaze gadavidnen, SabaTsa da kviras dasvenebis dReebia. bavSvebs ianvris TveSi saaxalwlo _ saSobao ramodenimekvirian, zafxulobiT ki ivnis _ agvistos TveebSi 3 Tvian ardadegebze uSveben, aseve isveneben zogierT religiur da saero dResaswaulebzec. axali saswavlo weli komunistebis dros 1 seqtembers iwyeboda, damoukideblobis periodSi ki axali saswavlo wlis dadgomis TariRi umetesad 15 _ 20 seqtemberia, zafxulobiT moswavleTa daTxovnebi ivnisis Sua ricxvebidan iwyeba. aseve adrindeli Sefasebis 5 niSniani sistema (moswavleebs niSnebs dRiurebSi uwerdnen) 10 qulianiT Seicvala,  pirvel klasSi ki qulebi ar iwereba da gakveTilebi 35 wuTiania, Ddidi  dasveneba ki _ 40 wuTiani. 2009 wlidan ki saqarTvelos skolebSi moswavleebi 12 klass amTavreben. Cveni skolis damTavrebis Semdeg, zafxulSi  moswavleebi mSoblebis daxmarebiT eqskursias, bolo zarsa (sportul darbazSi) da banketis sufras awyoben. gauwyinaris skolis kursdamTavrebulTa nawili Semdeg X klasSi swavlas pirveli maisis sajaro skolasa (sadac dRes direqtori rita gogiSvilia, saswavlo nawili _ eleonora arvelaZe, iq 200 _ ze meti  moswavle da 21 maswavlebelia) da sxva saswavleblebSi agrZelebs; adre ki 9 klas damTavrebulTa nawili abaSis ukve gauqmebul profteqnikumSic agrZelebda swavlas, sadac muSaobda Cveni Tanasofleli jemal okujava. skolaSi miRebuli codna _ gamocdileba axalgazrdebs farTod uxsnis gzas cxovrebis Semdgom etapebze aqtiuri moRvaweobisaTvis. sxvadasxva dros aq swavlobdnen bavSvebi, romlebmac Semdeg did warmatebebs miaRwies rogorc adgilobrivi, aseve saqarTvelosa da saerTaSoriso masStabebiT,  miiRes maRali samecniero xarisxebi da araerTxel asaxeles mSobliuri skola, maT Sorisaa SemdegSi saqarTvelos parlamentis (dRes ukve yofili) maJoritari deputati abaSis raionidan Tengiz kalandaZe, energetikis dargis maRalCinosani iveri SalamberiZe, fesburTeli sevasti Todua da sxvebi.
     Cveni skola kvlav agrZelebs sasaxelo TaobaTa aRzrda _ gamoSvebis metad sapasuxismgeblo  process!
     skolis ezos gverdiT aris soflis sasaflao. misi ezo wina mxridan nawilobriv  SemoRobilia ukve naxsenebi yofili kolmeurneobis ezos wina mxares axsnili liTonis talRovani furclebiT,  danarCen adgilebSi, gverdebze da ukana mxares mavTulbadea Semovlebuli, romelsac eklebic moedo. sasaflaos WiSkari zaur surgulaZem gvaCuqa. manve SegviZina 32 cali betonis fila (e.w. `sinkari~) daSlili mesaqonleobis fermidan sasaflaos ezos SemosaRobad, rac ver moxerxda; adre sasaflaos dRevandeli wina mxare ar ekuTvnoda (gzac ramdenadme gansxvavebulad Cadioda), is mas Semdeg Semoumates. aseve sasaflaos ezos wina, ukana da skolis mxares aris ramodenime Casasvleli. aq wina ezoSi aris liTonis jvari, romelic qviSanWalis mosaxleobam gadmogvca 90 _ iani wlebis bolos. sasaflaos ezoSi, ukana mxaris maxloblad, iq sadac axla mxolod mcired SemaRlebuli (miwiT `mozvinuli~, qolobnis `trasis~ pira sasaflaoze ki mTeli borcvia dayenebuli, is axla saflavebiTaa dafaruli, sadac adre eklesia iqneboda) adgilia SemorCenili (saflavebiTa da dawyobili naeklesiari qvebiT), Zvelad sakmaod didi zomis xis eklesia iyo aSenebuli (ris gamoc sasaflaos ezos zogierTi dResac eklesiis ezos eZaxis), romelsac qvis iataki hqonda da Senoba mrgvali formisa iyo. mas gareT derefanic hqonda, aq uamindobis dros zogjer micvalebuls daasvenebdnen da daayovnebdnen manam, sanam amindi ar gamovidoda da saflavis amoTxra SesaZlebeli gaxdeboda (gansakuTrebiT zamTarSi). is eklesia wminda giorgis saxelobisa iyo. iq sul adre mRvdeli qoriZe iyo, romelmac Semdeg Tavisi 20 qceva (miwis sazomi Zveleburi erTeuli, 1 qceva _ 0,4 heqtari) miwa anzor goToSias peperas (babuas mamas)  biWina goToSias mihyida 200 oqros fulad (1895 _ 1917 wlebSi mefis ruseTSi da misi imperiis SemadgenlobaSi Semaval qveynebSi arsebuli fuli, 1 oqros fuli udrida Semdgom komunistebis droindel 300 maneTs), es miwa moicavda Tanamedrove mosaxleebis murTaz surgulaZisa da gia quTaTelaZis ezoebs da aseve qviSanWalis gzisa da Zroxebis saZovris maxlobel nawilebs; TviTon ki sxvagan gadasaxlda. Semdeg im taZarSi mRvdeli simon CargeiSvili iyo, mis Semdeg  (bolos) misi Svili raJden CargeiSvili, is daibada 1880 wels (misi meuRle iyo anastasi ilarionis asuli ratiani _ CargeiSvili, 1884 _ 1965 ww.),  1913 wlisaTvis is mRvdeli iyo, gardaicvala 1967 wels. is sevast Toduas ezoSi cxovrobda, mas hyavda Svilebi  Tamari CargeiSvili (1913 _ 1992 ww.),  margalita CargeiSvili (1922 _ 1977 ww.), luba CargeiSvili _ gogiSvili (1915 _ 1990 ww. misi Svilia nunu gogiSvili, romelic ojaxTan erTad samtrediaSi cxovrobs) da eqimi, qirurgi grigol (griSa) CargeiSvili (1918 _ 1969 ww. savaraudod masac hyavs Svili). es pirovnebebi (garda luba CargeiSvilisa, romelic pirveli maisis namwareulis sasaflaozea dasaflavebuli meuRlesTan, valodia gogiSvilTan erTad) gauwyinaris sasaflaos wina mxares arian dakrZalulni. mama raJdenis TanaSemwe (SesaZlebelia diakvani) pavle Turqia (lali Tofurias babua) iyo. im eklesiaSi tardeboda wirva _ locva, romelsac xalxi eswreboda. dauzustebeli gadmocemis mixedviT maSindel eklesias ekuTvnoda aseve Tanamedrove stadionis, skolisa da yofili kolmeurneobis ezos teritoriebic, romlebzec SesaZloa mosavalic mohyavdaT da taZris saqmeebs xmardeboda. abaSis raionSi samSeneblo qva ar moipoveba, amitom aq kolxeTis dablobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli xis nagebobebi Sendeboda, risTvisac saWiro xe _ tye ki uxvad xarobda am adgilebSi. eklesiebic (da saerTod sxva Senobebic) ZiriTadad xis ficrul nagebobebs warmoadgendnen. qvis samtexloebi ki sakmaod Sors iyo da Tanac maSindeli primitiuli, xarebSebmuli saSualebebiT aqamde qvis mozidva da isic sezonurad did siZneleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. is eklesia savaraudod XIX saukunis Sua wlebSi an  meore naxevarSi unda aSenebuliyo, vinaidan swored am periodSia agebuli saWilaosa da maxlobeli sujunis olqis bevri eklesia; saWilaos (namwareulis, iq axla mxolod betonis, qvebCayolebuli saZirkvelis naSTebi, CuqurTmebiani qvebis fragmentebi, didi qvis magida da mogvianebiT dakidebuli zaria SemorCenili, is eklesia cxeniswylis piras idga) wminda giorgis xis eklesia aSenda 1870 wels, xolo saWilaos mTavarangelozTa xis eklesia ki 1853 wels. 1870 wlis saWilaos `sablagoCinos~ aRweraSi gauwyinaris eklesiacaa moxseniebuli. rogorc cnobilia gauwyinaris maSindel eklesiaSi saswaulsac ki hqonia adgili: erT _ erT Tanasoflels, romelic am adgilis maxloblad midioda, zaris rekvis xma Semoesma im dros,  rodesac eklesiaSi aravin iyo; aseve mogvianebiT savaraudod amave eklesiis xats erTma adamianma Tvali xiStiT ganzrax dauziana, romelsac Semdeg, rogorc am ambebSi Tanamonawilis naambobidanaa cnobili, namwareulis (pirveli maisis meore sasaflaos,  mdinare cxeniswylis marjvena napiras, marnisaken) eklesiis dangrevisa Tu misi masaliT pirveli maisis klubis aSenebis dros (pirveli maisis klubi im masaliT aaSenes (masala urmebiT gadmozides), romelic dRes ufunqciodaa) TvalSi sagani moxvda da mxedveloba dauzianda,  garda amisa im eklesiis dangrevaSi monawile erT kacs mogvianebiT agregatma cali xeli dauziana da is mohkveTes, mas sakuTari Svili ar hyolia. komunistebis mier saqarTvelos dapyrobis Semdeg, daaxloebiT 1936 wels, sxva mravalTan erTad es eklesiac daangries, misi masalis nawiliT skola da xarebis samwyvdevi ferma aaSenes, qvebis nawili skolis sasiarulo bilikebad daages, ramodenime maTgani ki Zveli kantoris win dagebuli sasiarulo betondasxmuli bilikis qvemoT,  aseve Zroxebis  saZovarze, sabavSvo baRis win,  zogierT ojaxSi da soflis sxva adgilebSic aRmoCnda. im periodSi xis eklesiebi daangries, qviT naSenebi ki umetesad sxva daniSnulebis obieqtebad (klubi, pirutyvis sadgomi, sawyobi da sxva) gadaakeTes. saeklesio siwmindeebi ganadgurda da gaifanta, sasuliero pirebs iZulebiT samRvdelo samosi _ anaforebi gaxades,  wveri gaparses da saero pirovnebebad aqcies. mrevli idevneboda. urwmunoebi aseve giorgi dianosis Ze goToSiasa da misi meuRlis, aRaTi otias asuli sturuas saflavis (sadac qvis lamazi,  CuqurTmebiani Zelia aRmarTuli) gadaxurvis Tavze aRmarTuli  jvris moZrobasac Seecadnen, magram mizans ver miaRwies, is jvari mtkiced damagrebuli aRmoCnda da mxolod gverdiT gadaiRuna, romelic amas winaT isev gaaswores, is pirovneba Semdeg cecxlSi daiwva;  adgili hqonda mkrexelobas. yovelive amis Camdenebis vinaoba nawilobriv cnobilia. is eklesia dResac axsovs soflis Rrmad moxucebul ramodenime adamians. axali eklesiis aSeneba, miuxedavad xalxSi arsebuli amis survilisa, dRemde ver xerxdeba, Tumca am mxriv SeiniSneba garkveuli winsvla. erTxans mosaxleobis nawili sasaflaos ezos wina mxares, giorgi SalamberiZis ezos pirdapir, sadac mcire zomis Tavisufali adgilia, eklesiis (saydaris) agebas fiqrobda, WiSkarTan daayenes Somowirulobebis yuTi, Tumca am saqmes Semdeg gagrZeleba ar hqonia.
     2006 wlis meore naxevarSi (da Semdgom periodSic) soflis sxvadasxva adgilebidan qvebis nawili Seagroves da am adgilas, Zvel naeklesiarze daalages, isini cal mxares gaTlilebia, erT _ erT maTgans ki garkveuli moxazulobac etyoba. aqvea saflavebis gaWris dros, iqedan amoRebuli  eklesiis fundamentSi Catanebuli riyis qvebic. es qvebi msxvili mavTuliTaa (`katanka siniTaa~) Sekruli. am qvebze daabrZanes macxovris, RvTismSoblisa da wminda giorgis xatebi (romlis saxelobisac iyo is) da patara Tixis eklesiis maketi, xolo qvebs zemoT liTonis jvari daadges. aqve devs mogrZo qvis Zeli, romelsac erT boloSi bawris gamosabmeli Rari aqvs, rogorc amboben Zvelad mas wowinaris cal mxares kidebdnen da amgvarad simZimeebs wevdnen eklesiis mSeneblobis dros. am qvebis gverdiT, skolis ukana gzis mxares minaivane SublaZis saflavia warwerebiani qviT, romelic 1893 wels gardacvlila 3 wlis asakSi. am adgilebSi micvalebulebis saflavebis amoTxrisas Zveli eklesiis fundamentis qvebs isev pouloben.
     1811 wels ruseTma saqarTvelos eklesiis damoukidebloba gaauqma (gauqmda mcxeTis sakaTalikoso) da mas saTaveSi ruseTis sinodis ganyofileba `dikasteria~ Cauyena, anton II ruseTSi gaiwvies, dawesda egzarqosoba. ruseTis eklesiis sinodis mier daniSnul moxeles _ egzarqoss dauqvemdebares eklesiebi. pirveli egzarqosi qarTveli, qsnis erisTavTa sagvareulos warmomadgeneli varlami iyo, man ver Seasrula Tavisi davalebebi, amitom SemdgomSi am Tanamdebobaze rusebi igzavnebodnen,  romlebic cxadia saqarTveloSi imperiis neba _ survils axorcielebdnen, romelTaganac mTavari iyo wirva _ locvis rusul enaze warmarTva (aseve eklesiis qonebis xelSi Cagdeba, gadasaxadebis gadideba, eparqiebis Semcireba da saerTod qarTveli samRvdeloebis Seviwroveba), amis gamo ajanyebebi moxda. am rusifikatoruli procesebis gamo qarTveli samRvdeloeba, socialuri fenebi da mTeli eri Zalian dazaralda. abaSis raionis teritoriaze sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebamde moqmedebda 40 _ mde eklesia, romlebic sxvebTan erTad gaerTianebulni iyvnen jer Wyondidis eparqiaSi (caiSisa da Wyondidis eparqiebi SeaerTes), Semdeg samegrelos eparqiaSi (daviT dadianis gardacvalebis Semdeg Wyondidis eparqias rusma moxeleebma saxeli Seucvales da mas `mengrelskoe eparxia~ anu samegrelos eparqia uwodes). droTa ganmavlobaSi, ZiriTadad XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi samegrelos eparqia xan imereTis eparqiasTan iyo SeerTebuli (1880 _ iani wlebi), xanac guriis eparqiasTan; revoluciamde ki is `guria _ samegrelos~ eparqiad iwodeboda. 1917 wlis 12 marts, rodesac saqarTvelos samRvdeloebis udidesi ZalisxmeviTa da RvTis SemweobiT aRdga qarTuli eklesiis avtokefalia (TviTmmarTveloba, kaTolikos _ patriarqad 17 seqtembers episkoposi kirion II, saZagliSvili airCies), aRdgenil iqna Wyondidis eparqiac, romlis SemadgenlobaSic erTiandeboda Tanamedrove abaSis raioni. 1980 wlisaTvis Wyondidis eparqia moicavda mTels samegrelos, magram is mZime dro iyo sulierebisaTvis da iq mxolod 4 moqmedi taZari iyo,  mrevli ki mcirericxovani dadioda eklesiaSi.
     sabWoTa periodamde abaSis raioni eklesiurad iyofoda or olqad anu rogorc maSin uwodebdnen `sablagoCinod~  (1870 wlisaTvis samegrelos eparqia daiyo 8 olqad _ `sablagoCinod~), am olqebs saTaveSi edga `blagoCinebi~ anu mTavaruxucesebi. eseni iyo sujunisa da saWilaos (amJamindeli pirveli maisis) `sablagoCinoebi~. swored saWilaos sablagoCinos 1870 wlis (es yvelaze adrindeli TariRia gauwyinaris Sesaxeb) aRweraSia moxseniebuli maSindeli gauwyinaris eklesia, romlis dokumentic  saqarTvelos saxelmwifo saistorio arqivSia daculi (`egzarxosis arqivi~).
     am sasaflaos ezos ukana mxares mdebare erT _ erT qvaze ikiTxeba Semdegi warwera:  `moixsene ufalo miqel rurua Sobidan 60 w gardaicvala 1883 w moixsene ufalo darjan razmaZis asuli Sobidan 80 w gardaicvala 1893w~. es yvelaze Zveli daTariRebuli warweraa gauwyinarSi aRmoCenil warwerebTagan. aqve aris aSkarad ufro Zveli qvebic, romlebzec warwerebi nawilobriv an mTlianad gadaSlilia da amis gamo maTze TariRis wakiTxva ver xerxdeba. aqedan  mwiri warmodgena mainc gveqmneba am sasaflaosa da soflis minimalur asakze. sasaflaos ezos SuagulSi uzarmazari, mravalsaukunovani Wadris xe iyo. mas SuagulSi didi fuRuro hqonda. am `deda~ xis irgvliv 11 _ 12 Ziri `Svili~, SedarebiT patara zomis Wadrebi iyo amosuli. am Wadars daaxloebiT 2006 wels, RamiT daudgeneli mizezis gamo cecxli gauCnda. mosaxleoba ecada mis gadarCenas, saxanZro manqanac moiyvanes, magram uSedegod, didi da ramodenime Svili xe daiwva, waiqca da saflavebic daaziana. Semdeg damwvari xeebi moWres da adgili gaasufTaves. axla aq mxolod didi xis namwvavi da 8 Ziri Svili Wadris xea, aseve mis ezoSi aris bzis, naZvis, tirifis, cacxvisa da sxva xeebi, buCqebi, yvavilebi da dekoratiuli mcenareebi, aqve wina RobesTan wels darges Caqvidan Camotanili evkaliptis nergebic.
     aq, am sasaflaoze bevri saflavia. mravali guldasawyveti pirovneba (mxolod wels, am teqstis daweris dros 16 gauwyinareli adamiani gardaicvala, magram aq da danarTis siaSic maTi saxelebia mainc aris naxsenebi, vinaidan `gauwyinaris istoria da Tanamedroveoba~ aRwers movlenebs uxsovari droidan 2010 wlis dekembris CaTvliT) wavida am qveynidan. maTi nawili siberis Sedegad bunebrivad gardaicvala, sxvebi ki avadmyofobis (avTvisebiani simsivnis _ kibos,  gulisa (infarqtis) da wnevis dartymis (`paraliCi~), sisxlis Caqcevis, Trombis da sxva), avtosagzao katastrofis, denis dakvris, TviTmkvlelobis, omebisa Tu sxva saxis ubeduri SemTxvevebis msxverplni gaxdnen. amas winaT ucxo adamiani yanebis farTobSi naxes gardacvlili, romelic policiam gadaasvena da misi vinaoba gaarkvia. Cvens sasaflaoze gauwyinarel da aquri warmoSobis micvalebulebs asaflaveben, gamonaklis SemTxvevas mxolod ramodenime aqauri ojaxi warmoadgens, romelTa micvalebulebs pirveli maisis sasaflaoze krZalaven. adamianis daRupvidan dasaflavebamde ojaxSi axlobel _ naTesavebi yvavilebiTa da kalaTebiT (`venokebiT~) Cadian samZimarze da panaSvidze,  qalebi win midian, kacebi ki maT ukan mihyvebian. micvalebuls gardacvalebidan (am dros mas ojaxis wevri da axlobel _ naTesavi  qali kiviliT Seicxadebs) 5 _ dan  me _ 10 dRemde, gapatiosnebisa (ganbanisa da gamowyobis) da wesis agebis (rac sabWoTa epoqaSi iSviaTad xdeboda) Semdeg samosaxloTi, Txmelas xis kuboTi asaflaveben. manamde ki micvalebulis uxrwnelad Sesanaxad gamoiyeneba yinulisa da bolo dros gavrcelebuli eleqtromacivrebi (`lednikebi~, axla ukve mxolod maT iyeneben), Zalian iSviaTad balzamirebac. dakrZalvis wina dRemde mezoblebs Wirisuflis ojaxSi morigeobiT sadili CaaqvT. am dReebSi alageben da awesrigeben, Tu saWiroa aremonteben saxlsa da ezos, aseve ezoSi dagamen grZel skamebsac xalxis dasajdomad.  gasvenebis (satiralis) dRes airCeven 3 mesamarxe  mamakacs, isini micvalebulis gvaris ar arian, romlebic saflvs gaWrian. gardacvalebidan dakrZalvamde micvalebuls `zalaSi~ Sua adgilas TaviT dasavleTisken daasveneben, TavTan patara magidas dgamen sanTlebiT, xatebiT, micvalebulis lukmiTa da sxva simboloebiT, ojaxs aq aqvs micvalebulis gadidebuli suraTic. gardacvlilis irgvliv Wirisufali qalebi sxedan, romlebic mas dastirian. micvalebulis cxedars mimsamZimrebeli xalxi marjvnidan irgvliv (`krugs~) Semouvlis, mamakacebi ki gareT Rebuloben samZimars, maT xels CamoarTmeven da `monawile var mwuxarebis~ an `viziareb mwuxarebas~ eubnebian; aqve dgas patara magida qudebisaTvis. bolos gardacvlilis ojaxSi WiSkridan mezoblebi Cadian vaziTa da yvavilebiT. Semdeg Wirisufali gareT gamohyavT, micvalebuls samosaxloTi kacebi samjer daatrialeben, daxurul karebs samjer msubuqad miajaxuneben, karebs gaaReben, gamoasveneben da ezoSi sam skamze daasveneben (romlebsac gasvenebisTanave gadaabruneben), mamakaci sityvis, `reCis~ warmoTqmiT samgloviaro procesias gaxsnis, sxvebic gamoeTxovebian gardacvlils, ris Semdegac procesia quCaSi gadava da sasaflaosaken gaemarTeba, mas win miuZRvis yvavilebi (romlebic ZiriTadad bavSvebs miaqvT da maT nawils TandaTan gzaze yrian, danarCens ki saflavze awyoben), Tavsaxuravi da micvalebulis gadidebuli suraTi; cxedars sasaflaoze gadaasveneben da dakrZalaven TaviT dasavleTisken. saxlSi vaxSamze dabrunebul adamianebs WiSkarTan Rvinisa da wylis nareviT xelebs abanineben. dakrZalvis dRes awyoben qelexis sufras, sadac daalageben purs,  mWads, xaWapurs, Tevzs, flavs, lobios, wadils, wvens, mwvanilebs, Rvinos, limonaTebsa da sxvagvar sasmel _ saWmelebs, magram ara xorcsa da misgan momzadebul kerZebs da aseve arc tkbileulsa da xils (sufras xalxis dajdomis Semdegac saTanadod Seavseben sakvebiTa da sasmelebiT), romelic umTavresad `brizentis~ wyalgaumtari qsovilis grZel karavSi, e.w. `sefaSi~, umetesad dasaflavebamde ewyoba (Tu Cveulebrivad tradiciuli, dRis, mimdinare sxdoma aqvT), iSviaTad dakrZalvis Semdeg (rodesac saRamos vaxSams awyoben, es wesi axlaxans SemoiRes) da mas Tavkaci da Tavqali xelmZRvaneloben, saWmelebs ki `povari~ (is xSirad aris Teimuraz (nikandro) WiqaSua) akeTebs sxvaTa daxmarebiT. gasvenebis dRes saxlis wina fasadze akraven Savi feris marTkuTxa qsovils (is gadakrulia `plankebis~ CarCoze), romelsac wlisTavis dRes Camoxsnian da sasaflaoze dawvaven; zogjer wina fanjaraSi micvalebulis suraTsac daamagreben. dakrZalvis dRes da panaSvidebis drosac ukravs samgloviaro (doli, akordeoni, duduki, magnitofoni, iSviaTad sasule  orkestri  _ `duxavoi~)  musika an mohyavT mgaloblebi (rac ramodenime welia SemoiRes). dakrZalvidan me _ 3 dRes gaSlian xsnilis mcire sufras (piris axsna),  zustad me _ 40 dRes ixdian ormocs, erTi wlis Semdeg ki wlisTavs,  romlebic gasvenebasTan SedarebiT ufro mcire zomisani arian (maT xSirad `sefis~ gareSe  did oTaxSic awyoben) da maSin Tu marxva ar aris saxsnilo saWmelebsac (aseve tkbileulsac) awyoben. komunistebis epoqaSi marxvis drosac saxsnilo sakvebs awyobdnen magidaze, aseve  ormocsa da wlisTavs xSirad gadawevdnen an daaswrebdnen zust TariRs. pur _ marils xSirad birJaze da mezoblebsac ugzavnian, daklaven cxvars (akeTeben Caqafuls). xalxi jer saflavze gadis, qalebi micvalebuls daitireben, mamakacebi ki RviniT moigoneben mas (Rvinos mcire raodenobiT saflavzec daasxamen),  iqve gaSlil mcire magididan aiReben saWmels, Semdeg dabrundebian Sin, jer sakurTxis magidasTan (saWmelebiTa da anTebuli sanTlebiT) sakmevels zemodan moatareben, Cayrian qvemoT dadebul anTebul nakvercxlebian kecze, moigoneben gardacvlils da sxvagan gaSlil mza magidas miusxdebian, romelsac Tamada gauZRveba jer gardacvlilebis (bolo dros ki pirvelad uflis sadidebels da mSvidobis sadRegrZeloebs amboben, sadRegrZeloebis aseTive Tanmimdevrobaa dakrZalvis sufrazec), Semdeg ki cocxlebis sadRegrZeloebis warmoTqmiT. gasvenebis, ormocisa da wlisTavis dros xalxi (e.w. `samoxio~, romelsac ramodenime dRiT adre `mawvieris~ saSualebiT sityvierad atyobineben am dRisaTvis mosvlas, winaT gasvenebis dRisaTvis maT werilebsac ugzavnidnen) Wirisufals TanxiT (mas gasvenebis dRes calke oTaxSi ori adamiani Rebulobs da wers, Tu micvalebuls `gadaburviT tirian~, rac ufro xSiria), produqtiTa (ormocis dRes, yveli, kvercxi, qaTami, indauri, goWi) da aseve fizikuri SromiTac exmareba. Wirisufali da ojaxis axloblebi glovis niSnad icvamen Sav samoss _ ZaZebs,  mamakacebi wvers mouSveben (umetesad ormocamde),  ojaxSi da sanaTesavo _ samezobloSi erTxans ar rTaven televizors, musikebs, ar awyoben sazeimo RonisZiebebs, aseve ar dadian iq. micvalebulis saxelze Sesabamis dros akeTeben sakurTxs. ojaxi da mezobel _ axloblebi samtrediis televiziiT xSirad acxadeben nekrologebs,  adre mas gazeT abaSis bolo  gverdzec gawerdnen.
     sasaflaoze saflavebis umetesoba irgvliv betonCasxmuli da liTonis (rkinis, Tujis, aluminis) figurebiT, `pamiatnikebiT~ (efterebiT) SemoRobilia. micvalebulis TavTan vertikalurad dgas qva, romelzec misi suraTi axatia, qvemoT ki dabadebisa da gardacvalebis TariRebi da zogjer epitafiaa dawerili, bevr saflavze jvaricaa. goToSiebis saflavze zaza goToSias biusti devs, is marnis sasaflaoze asaflavia, aseve aq erT _ erT saflavze betonis maRali svetia. Zveli saflavebis qvebi ki miwaze horizontalurad devs, maTze micvalebulis suraTi araa gamosaxuli. aseTi lodebis kideebSi (irgvliv) mtevnebiani vazis lerwebis nakveTi naxatebia (ornamentebia) gamosaxuli, aseve maTze saTanado warwerebi,  jvari, frTebiani angelozebi, figurebi da sxva religiuri simboloebia amotvifruli, aseTi qvebi sxva sasaflaoebzecaa. bevri saflavi waSlili da dakargulia, aris ucnobi saflavebic, aseve aq aris simboluri saflavebic im SinmousvlelTa,  romlebic meore msoflio omSi wavidnen da Sin ar dabrunebulan; maT qvaze ki maTi dabadebis TariRi da omis wlebis TariRebi (1941 _ 1945) aweria da aseve sabWoTa simbolikiani xuTqimian varskvlavgamosaxuli samxedro qudi axatia. aseTi saflavia mag: akaki ratianisa da varlam surgulaZis saflavebi. magram samwuxarod arc am sasaflaoze da arc Cveni soflis sxva adgilas SinmousvlelTa xsovnis ukvdavsayofad,  maTi memoriali an dafa ar gakeTebula, omSi monawileTa da SinmousvlelTa saflavebs zogjer 9 maiss Tu  Seamkoben yvavilebiT, isic iSviaTad. am sasaflaos momvleli adre roman xabeiSvili iyo,  dRes ki mas suleiman (suliko) SalamberiZe patronobs ojaxis wevrebTan erTad garkveuli anazRaurebiT, romelsac sezonurad mosaxleobaSi krefen. xalxi Rirseul pativs miagebs micvalebulTa naTel xsovnas.
     sasaflaos gverdiT soflis stadionia, romelic mavTulbadiT, eklebiani mavTulebiTa da joxebiTaa SemoRobili. aq adre evkaliptisa da xexilis nargavebi iyo.  dRes ki rodesac Sesaferisi sezoni da amindia, aq axalgazrdebis simravlea,  momavali  Taoba varjiSobs,  eweva cxovrebis jansaR wess.  aq xSirad imarTeba Sejibrebebi rogorc Siga, aseve sxva soflebis gundebs Soris. yovelive es xels uwyobs niWieri sportuli Taobis aRzrdas, romelTagan gamorCeulia fexburTeli sevasti Todua. am stadionze ramodenime wlis winaT gaimarTa Sejibreba fexburTSi gauwyinaris asakovan adamianebs Soris, romelic giga goToSiam videokameriT gadaiRo da es kaseta dRemdea Senaxuli sofelSi.
     stadionis gverdiT,  sadac axla 2 didi Wadari da patara alvis xeebia (stadionze aseve mtirala tirificaa),  adre  wisqvili da saxerxi iyo. isini denis gamoyvanamde jer mazuTze, Semdeg ki dizelis sawvavze (`saliarkaze~) muSaobdnen (sul Zvelad ki soflis ganapiras, rionze erT adgilas wylis wisqvili hqondaT aSenebuli, Semdeg am adgils nadolabars eZaxdnen),  adre am wisqvilis (WadrebTan mdebare)  mbrunavma meqanizmma Seiwira bavSvi,  tariel surgulaZis Zma _ avTandil surgulaZe. am obieqtebSi muSaobdnen daviT fircxalava, Samil gogiSvili, giorgi surgulaZe, efrem Todua (mas wisqvilSi cali xeli dauzianda da is mohkveTes), ivane (vano) wulukiZe. gasuli saukunis 80 _ ian wlebSi es obieqtebi sxvagan gadaitanes. aqve iyo samWedlo, sadurglo saxelosno, sadac mavTulbadeebs da sxva saWiro sagnebs amzadebdnen. iq muSaobdnen alfez Todua (mamuka Toduas papa), simon Citia da sxvebi. Zvelad aseve aq iyo mcenare ramis gadamamuSavebeli saamqro, romliTac Semdeg qsovilebs amzadebdnen da mas vasil CaCava xelmZRvanelobda. iq dazgam lena gogiSvils cali xeli mohglija;  Semdeg es obieqtebi gaauqmes, xolo wels aq darges Caqvidan Camotanili ramodenime Ziri evkaliptis nergi.
     stadionis win skolamdeli aRzrdis dawesebuleba _ sabavSvo baRia. iq axla 16 bavSvi (`baRnebi~) dadis, winaT aRsazrdelebis raodenoba meti iyo da erTxans ori jgufi hqondaT gaxsnili. sul pirvelad es baRi Cvens Tanasoflel raJden CargeiSvilis (dRevandel sevast Toduas, aseve adre  sxvaTa sacxovrebel) saxlSi iyo ganTavsebuli. am dros misi gamge Tamar maskulia (samiqaodan) iyo. mogvianebiT es baRi anzor goToSias saxlis gverdiT, misi babuas Zmis,  giorgi goToSias saxlSi gadaitanes, Semdeg jemal mgelaZis saxlSi,  bolos ki 1982 wels, pirveli maisis Zveli skolis masalis nawiliT aq aages 1 metri simaRlis burjebze  (berketis bokomze) mdgari xis Senoba, romelsac wina mxares agurebi amouSenes da baRi Sig ganaTavses. aq manamde geranisa da bazelikis nergebis gamosayvani saTburebi iyo, romelsac gia janaSias papa, uSangi janaSia xelmZRvanelobda.
     sabavSvo baRSi muSaobs aRmzrdel _ maswavlebeli margalita (nana) esakia, musikis maswavlebeli nestan vaSakiZe  (is bavSvebs pianinoTi aswavlis simRerebsa da cekvebs),  momvleli da damlagebeli eka janjRava, mzareuli nino Turqia. am baRis gamge 1977 wlis 1 oqtombridan iyo Tamara nafetvariZe (marneli, gadmovida pirveli maisis baRidan),  1979 wlidan dRemde  misi gamge marina Toduaa. baRis mavTulbadiT (is ZirSi betonCasxmulia) SemoRobili ezo gamwvanebulia,  sadac aris naZvis, tyemlis, Txmelasa da sxva xeebi, dargulia yvavilebi. aqve mowyobilia sabavSvo saTamaSoebi. Senoba SeSis RumeliT Tbeba. bavSvebi swavloben leqsebs, simRerebs, cekvebs, atareben koncertebs, akeTeben xelsaqmes, TamaSoben; isini dahyavT eqskursiaze, cirkSi, Sesaferis sabavSvo RonisZiebebze. patarebi aq iZenen sazogadoebaSi qcevis wesebs, Rebuloben saTanado codnas, rac maT Semdeg uadvilebT skolis garemosTan Seguebas. am sabavSvo baRs didmniSvnelovani roli akisria Cveni  soflis  momavali  Taobis aRzrdis saqmeSi.
     baRis Semdeg, rogorc vTqviT mTavari gzis dasasrulia (am quCis bolo mosaxlea irma Todua),  mis pirdapir jemal mgelaZis saxli da ezoa, aq gza or nawilad iyofa. marcxena xreSiani gzagamtari TiTqmis Sua adgilas uerTdeba skolis ukana gzas; es gza rogorc ukve zemoT aRvniSneT qviSanWalis gzas dasawyisSive gamoeyofa,  masze pirveli mosaxle anzor goToSiaa. misi oda saxlis qvemoTa sarTulis erT oTaxSi marnel ferSal dina janjalias 80 _ iani wlebis Sua periodamde mowyobili hqonda punqti, romelic sofelSi orsul qalebs aRricxavda da maT konsultacias uwevda, Semdeg is gauqmda. amave quCis macxovrebelma rusudan (rusiko, cuga) ZiZigurma sakuTar ezoSi daaxloebiT 2006 wels aaSena rkina _ betonis (`sinkarebis~) patara ferma, sadac is ramodenime aTeul Zroxas uvlida da yvels yidda. iq mwvelavad da pirutyvis momvlelad daqiravebiT muSaobdnen zurab Turqia, tariel surgulaZe, mamuka SalamberiZe da sxva, magram am fermam mcire xans imoqmeda. am quCis bolo mosaxlea qeTevan (cicinar) WiqaSua. gzis dasasrulSi, marjvniv aris giga SalamberiZis kuTvnili Txmelebis xeebiani (`Txmelebad wasuli~) nakveTi,  Semdeg,  sadac am gzas gruntiani gza uerTdeba, aris SemoRobili zoli WiSkariT,  romlis miRma goSaxis vrceli yanebia, sadac mxolod dabali xarisxis miwiani gzebia traqtorebisaTvis, maRali gamavlobis avtomobilebisa da saWapano transportisaTvis gankuTvnili. am karebis Semdeg gza or nawilad iyofa da isini qarsafris marjvena da marcxena mxares miemarTebian. marcxena gzis dasawyisSi, ukan aris sabalaxosTan naxsenebi SemoRobili TuTebis (bJolebis) plantacia Casasvleli kariT, romelic roman cercvaZisa da abel koxreiZisaa, aseve am gzis dasawyisSi, marcxniv aris daaxloebiT 18 heqtari miwis nakveTi (18 heqtrianis saxelwodebiT), is karlo guguSvilis mier ijariTaa (arendiT) aRebuli, is adre mavTulebiT iyo SemoRobil _ daculi, mis nawilze dRes ramodenime mosaxles yanebi aqvs da gadasaxadsac ixdian, farTobis dasawyisSi ki goCa janjRavas mier eklebiani (`kaliuCi~) mavTulebiT SemoRobili Txmelebiani adgilia.  am 18 heqtrianis bolos Sua gzaze aris 8 Ziri Wadari, cota moSorebiT, Jora oragveliZisa da avTo janjRavas yanebis sazRvris (sagoraos) pirdapir, ReleSi Cans iq gamavali naxsenebi gazsadenis Savizolaciani msxvili mili. am da am adgilebis maxloblad adre  iyo zemoT naxsenebi saZovari, manamde ki mosaxleoba pirutyvs (aseve Rorebsac) balaxian adgilebSi paloebiani TokebiT (bawrebiT) abamda saZovad; amave adgilebSi iyo Txmelebis, TuTebisa da sxva foTlovani xeebis tye, romelic daaxloebiT 1964 wlis Semdeg  moWres da miwebi gaamasives, yanebad aqcies. iqvea moWris Semdeg xelaxla amosuli ramodenime qarsafari zoli foTlovani xeebiT, erTi maTgani karebis maxloblad iwyeba da cxilaramde Cadis, mas dasawyisidanve marjvniv iqve da marcxniv moSorebiT yanis gza miuyveba. Tqmulebis, miTis mixedviT aq Zvelad erT dRes qalebi yofilan, am dros maT daunaxavT Sah _ abasi Tavisi laSqariTurT da im qalebs erTmaneTisaTvis SeSinebuli dauwyiaT Zaxili gogo Sahio, amis gamo darqmevia am adgils goSaxi. goSaxs samxreT _ aRmosavleTiT kirkala emijneba, samxreT _ dasavleTiT ki, sadac es qarsafari mTavrdeba (aq erTdebian mis orive mxares gamyoli gzebi) _ cxilaris yanebi, sadac Zvelad albaT rcxilebis tye iqneboda da savaraudod amis gamo daerqmeoda mas rcxilnari anu cxilari, Semdeg tye moWres da miwebi saxnav _ saTesad gamoiyenes, es miwebi dRes erT _ erTi yvelaze noyieri niadagia Cvens sofelSi. cxilaris zogierTi adgilidan samxreT _ dasavleTiT Cans samtrediis raionis sofel qoreisubnis (qorosubnis) RvTismSoblis saxelobis XV saukunis eklesiis gumbaTi (sxva adgilebidan ki SeiZleba abaSis raionis sofel gulekaris wminda giorgis XVIII _ XIX saukuneebis eklesiis danaxvac). cxilarSi sul Zvelad mosaxleobas venaxebic hqondaT gaSenebuli, iqve hqondaT miwaSi damarxuli qvevrebic, misi ramodenime mcire zomis namsxvrevi axlaxans aRmoCnda am adgilebSi miwis samuSaoebis dros. adre aq koleqtivis sasimindec iyo aSenebuli. goSaxis dasavleT mxares da cxilaris Semdeg ki baxvaWalaa, ramdenadac cnobilia mas es saxeli daerqva imis gamo,  rom aq adre yofila zeda socialuri fenis warmomadgeneli, mdidari kaci saxelad baxva, romelsac miwebi hqonda (albaT rionis WalaSic) da Semdeg saxelwodeba baxvas Wala anu baxvaWala dRemde SemorCa. baxvaWalis Semdeg ki mdinare rionia, romlis gadaRmac samtrediis raionia.
     baRis gverdiT Camaval wisqvilis SedarebiT mokle quCaze pirveli mosaxlea neli kutalaZe. iqve axlos, gzis meore mxares aris soflis eleqtrowisqvili, romelic aq daaxloebiT 1982 wels berketiT aaSenes da SiferiT gadaxures, mas Weri ara aqvs, manamde is rogorc zemoT vTqviT dRevandel soflis stadionTan iyo agebuli. is dens Rebulobs Tavisi N120 transformatoridan, iq ori qva muSaobs: erTi adamianis sakvebi simindis dasafqvavi da meore pirutyvisTvis _ safuraJe, maT garda aqvea yofili meRoreobis fermidan wamoRebuli gansxvavebuli konstruqciis safuraJe wisqvilic (`drabilka~),  romliTac yvela saxis mosavlis dafqvaa SesaZlebeli. is adre oleg ratianis saxlSi moqmedebda, Semdeg ki aq gadmoitanes. aq mewisqvileebi iyvnen efrem Todua da ivane  (vano) wulukiZe,  isini morigeobiT, or cvlaSi muSaobdnen. Semdeg marto ivane wulukiZe iyo, romlis drosac wisqvili privatizebul iqna. aq manamde erTxans gribul kutalaZe da vaJa SublaZec muSaobda. ivane wulukiZis gardacvalebis Semdeg ki misma Svilma nunu wulukiZem 2005 wlidan aq mewisqviled mamul arvelaZe daayena daqiravebiT.
     wisqvilis gverdiT saxerxi iyo, sadac aseve efrem Todua da vano wulukiZe muSaobda. Semdeg is gauqmda da daSales. am obieqtebma mniSvnelovani  roli Seasrules soflis mosaxleobis cxovrebaSi. am quCaze bolo mosaxlea eTer Turqia.
     gauwyinaris meore quCa iwyeba soso (mawak) jRarkavas saxlidan, is am quCis pirveli mosaxlea da aq dgas Wadris xe, romlis ZirTan `skameikis~ rkinebia. am quCas xSirad gaRma quCas,  dabla gauwyinars,  xolo mis bolo nawils ki soflis bolos vuwodebT. am quCis dasawyisSi cxovrobda mfrinavi (`liotCiki~) amiran fircxalava (Tamar fircxalavas mama), romelic kopitnar _ moskovis reisis TviTmfrinavs marTavda. vaxtang (guli) janaSias ezos gaswvriv aris karebiani biliki _ Suka, romlis bolosac aseve karebia, Semdeg ki Txilebis nargavebi. merab karanaZis ezos win aris 2006 wels aRmarTuli TeTrad SeRebili liTonis milis jvari,  romelic amave wlis 6 maiss,  giorgoba dRes akurTxa mama egnatem. zviad janaSias ojaxSi aqvs patara safuraJe (`drabilka~) da adamianis sakvebi simindis dasafqvavi wisqvili da saxerxi, romliTac  mravali  sofleli sargeblobs. misi da malxaz xaJomias ezoebs Soris aris biliki, mis bolos karebia da is Semdeg uerTdeba saZovars,  romelic mosaxleobis ukanaa. iq aseve aris moWris Semdeg kvlav amosuli qarsafari, aseve tyemlebis, Txmelebisa da sxva xeebic, modebulia nar _ ekalic.  saZovris ukan ki kutaiweria, mis Semdeg ki _ Txmelari. nunu wulukiZis ezos Semdeg, magul ratianis ezos iqeTa adgilamde, gzasa da Reles Soris xSiradaa mcire zomis SemoRobili adgilebi, romlebic mosaxleobas ekuTvnis.
     iq, sadac skolis wina gzagamtari (`Suka~) meore quCas uerTdeba, reisis transportis (`marSrutkis~) gaCerebasTan,  2010 wlis 3 aprils, aRdgomis wina dRes aRmarTes liTonis milis jvari. mas Semdeg brtyeli qvebis fundamenti amouSenes sanTlis asanTebi adgiliT, aseve mavTulbadiT SemoRobes, TeTrad SeRebes  da yviTeli feris mnaTi zoliT ganaTeba mouwyves.
     aqve axlos cxovrobs akaki ratiani, romelic abaSaSi kavSirgabmulobis ufrosia.
     jora janaSias ezos wina RobesTan berketiT naSeni jixuri aqvs, sadac is adre ama Tu im saxis produqtiT vaWrobda.
     jombar baaxias ezos win dgas denis gamanawilebeli liTonis 2 karada, yuTebi mricxveliTa da gamTiSveliT,  gzis meore mxares ki,  sadac gzagamtari meore quCas uerTdeba aris mcire zomis gadaxuruli Ria mosacdeli. magul ratianis ezos Semdeg patara teritoriis mqone  Tavisufali adgilia.
     zaal (zaliko) xaJomias ezoSi aqvs patara saxerxi da xis dasamuSavebeli saamqro, romliTac sxva soflebidanac sargebloben. is deniT Tavis ezoSi mdgari sakuTari,  N 144 transformatoridan maragdeba. 2010 wels man Zveli saxerxi daSala da ukana mxares axali,  ukeTesad mowyobili saxerxis aSeneba daiwyo.
     am quCaze,  iq sadac mas gruntiani gza uerTdeba, zaliko da nikita xaJomiebis ezoebs Soris aris kidev erTi liTonis milis jvari, romelic aq 2007 wlis agvistos miwuruls, mariamobis dResaswaulamde  ramodenime  dRiT  adre  aRmarTes.
     ruben janaSiasac aqvs ezos wina RobesTan Cadgmuli yofili savaWro `butka~, xolo kolia janaSias Sin patara sadurglo saxelosno aqvs mowyobili.
     am quCis bolo nawils da mis iqeT mdebare sayane nakveTebs baxvaWala ewodeba. am gzis bolos maxloblad, baCuk kopaleiSvilisa da rezo fircxalavas ezoebs Soris aris meore biliki, romlis bolos karebia da isic aseve imave saZovars uerTdeba da masac mosaxleoba iq pirutyvis Casarekad da ukan gamosarekad iyenebs. ufro iqeT ki, mopirdapire marcxena mxares aris avtomobilebis mosabrunebeli. am quCaze bolo mosaxle aleqsandre (tuqsi) arvelaZea. iqve axlos aris Senoba, romelic baCuk kopaleiSvilisaa da iq Spaleris saamqro unda yofiliyo,  Tumca mas ar umoqmedia. am adgilebis win adre xexilis baRebi iyo gaSenebuli.
     meore quCis bolos, marjvena mxares farTobebi iwyeba, romlis TavSic iyo didi saswori satvirTo avtomobilebisaTvis, iqvea WaburRilic, saidanac xarisxiani sasmeli wyali dResac mudmivad moedineba TviTdinebiT, romelic mosaxleobasac daaqvs.
     mis mopirdapire mxares ki yofili mesaqonleobis fermaa. is sul adre rionis maxloblad idga. Semdeg ki is 1967 wels,  dRevandeli fermis nangrevebis wina mxares aaSenes (aseve Zvelad, am midamoebis axlos, amJamindeli mosaxleebis adgilas xarebis dasabmeli xis Senobac hqondaT agebuli gauwyinaris eklesiis danaSali masaliT). 1975  wlidan ki ukve mis win axali,  berketis fermis SiferiT daxuruli grZeli Senobebi aages, sadac manamde bazelikis sanerge meurneoba iyo. am fermis farTo ezoSi (romelic dResac SemoRobilia mavTulbadeebiT da win didi WiSkari uyenia) mowyobili iyo wylis avzebi, auzi, saTanado milgayvaniloba,  sasilose nagebobebi, sacavebi, saTavsoebi da sxva tipis saWiro Senoba _ nagebobebi.  fermas hqonda vrceli saZovari. iq samuSaoebi meqanizebuli iyo,  rac aadvilebda adamianTa Sromas da zrdida mis nayofierebas. ferma deniT Tavisi transformatoridan maragdeboda. Zroxebi liTonis gisosebian galiebSi (`kletkebSi~) iyvnen moTavsebulni, maT win hqondaT sapireebi sakvebisa da wylis misaRebad. saqonlis organuli narCenebi (nakeli) eleqtroZraviani lentiseburi transportioriT Senobis gareT gadioda, romliTac Semdeg yanebis niadags anoyierebdnen. aq mowyobili iyo pirutyvis sakvebis gadamamuSavebeli saamqro Sesabamisi aRWurvilobiT, aseve saTavsoebi da muSa _ mosamsaxureTa oTaxebi. Zroxebs erTxans eleqtrosawveli aparatebiT wvelidnen, maTi raodenobac sul 500 Zroxas Seadgenda. am fermaSi Rebulobdnen rZes (is specialuri bidonebiTa da cisterniani avtomobilebiT mihqondaT), yvels, sulguns, romlebsac xorcTan erTad saxelmwifos abarebdnen. Tavis mxriv ki ferma uxvad maragdeboda koleqtivSi moweuli simindiT, CaliT, TiviT, amzadebdnen siloss (kombainiT nedlad aRebul,  daqucmacebul siminds Cayridnen amoSenebul betonebs Soris,  e.w. koSkebSi, mas daayridnen marils da traqtorebiT datkepnidnen, rac zamTarSi pirutyvisaTvis noyieri sakvebi iyo),  aseve aq Sesabamisi avtomanqanebiT `nasipad~ modioda qato da cxovelebisaTvis saWiro preparatebi. adgili hqonda adamianisa da cxovelebis brucelozis SemTxvevebs. mravali sofleli muSaobda iq da iRebdnen saTanado gasamrjelos. bolo dros muSebi da mwvelavebi iyvnen ivane lifareiSvili,  venera,  tariel da roman surgulaZeebi, izolda (izo) baraTeli, ninuca janjRava, vardo Turqia da sxvebi; veteqimi _ nora TuTaraSvili, zooteqnologi _ oleg ratiani, laboranti ki cico xubua iyo. am mecxoveleobis fermis gamgeebi sxvadasxva dros iyvnen grigol korZaia, konstantine qunTelia, Semdeg evtex (tuxuna) Turqia (gamge iyo 1974 _ 1987ww.), misi gardacvalebis Semdeg, 1987 wlidan misi Svili zurb Turqia am fermis bolo gamge iyo (adre iyo sxva gamgeebic). kolmeurneobis daSlasTan erTad es fermac gauqmda. pirutyvi Caabares, teqnika da SenobaTa nawili daSales da gayides. amJamad aq erTi didi da oTxamde patara Senoba da wylis avzia SemorCenili.  misi ezo ki yanebad da saZovrad daanawiles;  is mogvianebiT baCuk kopaleiSvilma Seisyida.
     am fermis ezos iqeTa mxares 1987 wels eTerzeTebis (bazelikis, romelsac gansakuTrebuli suni hqonda) qarxana aages. iq traqtorebiTa da satvirTo manqanebiT, amave da sxva soflebidanac mohqondaT da amuSavebdnen nedl mcenares _ bazeliks. mas jer wonidnen wina ezoSi (is SemoRobili da WiSkardayenebuli iyo) mowyobil did sasworze,  Cambarebels uxdidnen anazRaurebas,  nedleuls ki ibarebdnen, romelsac xarSavdnen liTonis did qvabebSi, saTbobad mazuTs iyenebdnen. moxarSul masas wuravdnen, wvens sxvagan agzavnidnen Semdegi gadamuSavebisaTvis, narCenebs ki agrovebdnen da Semdeg is yanebSi gahqondaT niadagis gasanoyiereblad organuli sasuqis saxiT.
     am obieqtis xelmZRvaneli mSeneblobidanve jimSer Citia iyo,  romelic aq simaRlidan Camovarda da Semdeg gardaicvala. mis Semdeg qarxanas misi Svili Tedo Citia xelmZRvanelobda. am eTerzeTebis sawarmom mcire xans, 3 wels imuSava da bolos sxva mravalTan erTad isic daixura, misi liTonis mowyobilobebis nawili moipares,  umetesoba ki  daWres da jarTad Caabares, iq axla mxolod ekal _ bardebia da iqauri miwa baCuk kopaleiSvils aqvs arendiT arebuli, iqve axlos man Txilebi dargo.
     yofili eTerzeTebis qarxnis win da gverdiT baxvaWalis vrceli yanebia. maT boloSi mdinare rioni esazRvreba, romlis gaRma ukve samtrediis raionia. am yanebs Crdilo _ dasavleT mxares kutaiweri esazRvreba. gauwyinaris yanebi da mindvrebi daqselilia dabali xarisxis gruntiani gzebiT.
     zustad aravin icis ramdeni wlisaa gauwyinari. amis Sesaxeb mxolod iSviaTi werilobiTi (magaliTad im saflavis qvis warwera, rogorc vTqviT is yvelaze Zveli werilobiTi wyaroa Cveni soflis Sesaxeb, rac ki soflis SigniTaa aRmoCenili, aseve naxsenebi 1870 wlis saWilaos sablagoCinos aRwera, sadac gauwyinaris eklesiacaa moxseniebuli  (cxadia am dros sofeli ukve iarsebebda) da is dRemde mikvleulTagan yvelaze Zveli dokumentia Cveni soflis Sesaxeb) da zepiri (xne xalxis mier gadmocemuli, maTi winaprebis naambobi) wyaroebidanaa SesaZlebeli msjeloba,  romelTa Tanaxmadac is minimum ramodenime saukunis mainc unda iyos. aseve Cveni mosazRvre pirveli maisis sasaflaos erT _ erTi saflavis qvaze ikiTxeba rusuli warwerebi da TariRi _ 1865w. Cveni mosazRvre soflis, maSindeli saWilaos namwareulis wminda giorgis saxelobis eklesia, rogorc vTqviT 1870 wels aSenda,  xolo amave soflis mTavarangelozTa eklesia ki ufro adre _ 1853 wels. amave dros moxucebulTa naTqvamidan (is dauzustebelia, SeiZleba nawilobriv legendasaviTac iyos) cnobilia rom,  daaxloebiT 1820 wels dabadebuli niko surgulaZe, romelic guriaSi cxovrobda da iq batoni mohkla, vinaidan man gogo gaaupatiura (meore versia ki am mkvlelobis mizezad miiCnevs batonis mier qalis iZulebas, rom mas lekvisaTvis Tavisi ZuZu ewovebina, raTa ZaRli kargi gamosuliyo), iqedan usafrTxoebis mizniT gamoqceula da gauwyinarSi dasaxlebula dRevandeli mosaxlis, arsena surgulaZis ezos ukana midamoebSi daaxloebiT 1847 wels (aq misi moZebnis ufleba da saSualeba mis batons SesaZlebelia ar hqonda, Tanac Zebna mxolod garkveuli vadiT grZeldeboda), sadac Semdeg is daqorwinda da mas ukavSirdeba surgulaZeebis gvaris gamravleba gauwyinarSi (analogiur istoriebs hyvebian sxva gvarebis warmomadgenlebic); is pirovneba cxadia dausaxlebel adgilas ver dafuZndeboda da aq im dros ukve mosaxleoba iqneboda. dasavlur qarTuli saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianeba kolxeTi, Zveli msoflios erT _ erTi mniSvnelovani civilizebuli qveyani iyo. `kolxeTi iberiasTan erTad Seadgenda im niadags, romelzedac Sendeboda qarTuli feodaluri saxelmwifoebrioba~ _ werda akademikosi simon janaSia.  Zvelad saqarTveloSi adamianebi ricxobrivad zogjer (magaliTad Sua saukuneebSi) meti cxovrobdnen vidre dRes, Tanac maSin ra Tqma unda mravalsarTuliani sacxovrebeli Senobebi (gansxvavebiT Tanamedrove qalaqebisa) ar Sendeboda da amis gamo dasaxlebuli teritoriis farTobi amJamindelTan SedarebiT udaod gacilebiT meti iqneboda, amis gamo didia imis albaToba rom, Tanamedrove gauwyinaris maSindel teritoriaze mosaxleoba yofiliyo, Tanac es vake teritoriaa, zRvasTan siaxloviT, Tbili zamTariTa da noyieri niadagiT, rac karg pirobebs qmnis adamianebis sacxovreblad. aseve Zvelad saqarTveloSi `abreSumis gza~ (Zveli welTaRricxvis VI _ IV saukuneebSi, indoeTidan da CineTidan kaspiis zRvamde, Semdeg ki kavkasiis gavliT Sav zRvamde da Semdeg evropamde) da sxva gzebic gadioda, Tanac mezobel qviSanWalaSi, rionze naosnoba iyo ganviTarebuli (e. w. indoeTis savaWro gza),  iq navmisadgomic iyo da es kidev ufro metad amyarebs maSindel gauwyinarSi mosaxleobis arsebobis varauds. XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi rionze Tbomavali gemebi gamoCnda, isini ufro Cqara dacuravdnen da meti tvirTis gadatanac SeeZloT, maT konkurencia gauwies navebs. pirvel Tbomaval gems (`paraxods~), rogorc korneli borozdini gadmogvcems `akermani~ rqmevia.  misive cnobiT `saWilaos navebs~ (isini odiSuri, megruli `niSis~ _ navebis analogias warmoadgendnen)  Txmelis xisagan akeTebdnen,  maT Ziri brtyeli hqondaT, romlebic dacuravdnen daba orpirsa (is orpirs, qviSanWalas dabad ixseniebs) da foTs Soris,  aseve quTaisamde da Soropnamdec. naosnoba maSin Sewyda, rodesac saxmeleTo, gansakuTrebiT ki sarkinigzo transporti warmoiSva, dRes navebs mxolod saTevzaod Tu iyeneben da isic iSviaTad. abaSis raionis teritoriaze, mdinare rionis sanapiroebTan (gauwyinaric xom rionis sanapirosTan mdebareobs) sxvadasxva adgilebSi sakmaodaa napovnia antikuri xanisa (magaliTad: keTilarSi `namarnus~ naqalaqari,  Zv. w. aR _ is VIII _ VII ss. amave periodis `naoxvamud~ naeklesiarad wodebuli patara goranamosaxlari sofel gulekaris midamoebSi, naesakovos TemSi `Suaqalaqis~ nivTebis fragmentebi, Zv. w. aR _ is V s. iq aseve gzajvaredinic iyo,  sefieTis eklesia,  ax. w. aR _ is V s.  tyviri arsebobda ax. w. aR _ is VII _ VIII ss.) da Sua saukuneebis (sofel Zveli abaSis midamoebSi, nasoflar kadaris dasaxleba, XIV s. wyemis Camoyalibeba, XIV s. Tanamedrove abaSis teritoriaze mWidro, kopmpaqturi dasaxlebis warmoSoba, XVIII s _ is meore naxevari da sxva) droindeli nivTebi, eklesiebi da dasaxlebebi, Tanac qarTvel istorikosTa mosazrebiT WilaZeTa dinastia ara ugvianes XII saukunidan iRebs saTaves, ufro adre Tu ara (aseve rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT vaxuSti batoniSvilis mier saqarTvelos samefos aRweraSi, romelic VIII saukunemdel periods exeba, moxseniebulia saWilaoc); XIV _ XVI saukuneebSi ki es dinastia gaZlierebula da maTi sacxovrisi punqti, safeodalos centri iyo tyviri, dRevandel pirvel maiss maSin aseve saWialo erqva da im safeodaloSi Sedioda. XVI saukunis Semdeg ki WilaZeebma nel _ nela TiTqmis mTlianad dakarges TavianTi samflobelo da XVIII saukunisaTvis maT mxolod saWilao (pirveli maisi) da kidev tyviri, marani, qolobani da gulekari (maT gulekarSi yvelaze gvinobamde, XX saukunis dasawyisamde gaZles) SemorCaT, am yovelives Sesaxeb Cven zemoT ukve gvqonda saubari. Cveni momijnave da mezobeli soflebis im drosac arseboba, Tanac sakmaod Zlieri saxiT, mniSvnelovnad zrdis maSindel gauwyinarSi dasaxlebis arsebobis SesaZleblobas da Tu es marTlac asea, maSin gauwyinari (Tu misi imdriondeli teritoria, romelsac ucnobia maSin ra erqva) 400 wlis an SesaZlebelia metisac ki iyos; magram CvenTan arqeologiuri gaTxrebi da raime sxva saxis kvleva _ Zieba ar Catarebula. internetSi saZiebo sistemebi Cvens sofelze skolis, sabavSvo baRis, statistikis departamentisa da sxva veb _ gverdebis monacemebs poulobs,  abaSis arqivSi ki yofili kolmeurneobis sabuTebi inaxeba, aseve  sofelSi (magaliTad skolaSi) da mis gareTac, kerZo ojaxebsa da sxvadasxva dawesebulebebSi SemorCenilia Zveli dokumentebi, nawerebi, sabuTebi, fotoebi, audio da video masala, sagnebi da zepiri gadmocemebi. rac Seexeba videomasalas, maTgan erT _ erTi yvelaze Zveli, 1991 wels gadaRebuli iyo nino mgelaZisa da zurab cixeTaTriSvilis qorwilis (dabrunebiTis) ceremoniali, romelic kasetaze iyo Cawerili. masSi bevri iseTi adamiani iyo gadaRebuli, romlebic dRes cocxlebi aRar arian da Tan maTi sxva videoCanawerebi ar arsebobs, vinaidan maT dros videokamerebi qorwilebSic ki ar mohyavdaT da saerTod videogadaRebebi did iSviaTobas warmoadgenda. es naxsenebi kaseta (qorwilis ramodenime dRe), romelic faqtobrivad soflis reliqvias warmoadgenda, am ojaxis ufrosma kacma, dedoflis mamam jemal mgelaZem gadaaRebina Tbilisis studiidan moyvanil Tavis megobrebs, romlebic am saqmeze muSaobdnen. magram samwuxarod es Canaweriani kaseta erT _ erTi ganaTxovrebis dros daikarga,  Tanac misi asli ar arsebobda.
     gauwyinarze mudam aisaxeboda mTels qveyanaSi mimdinare procesebi. XVI saukuneSi da sxva periodebSic saqarTvelos mTeli mosaxleoba feodalebad da glexebad iyofoda, Tavis mxriv feodalebi _ aznaurebad da Tavadebad. arsebobdnen sami kategoriis Tavadebi: didebuli, saSualo da mcire Tavadebi.  didebuli Tavadebis (romlebic mcire raodenobiT iyvnen) ricxvs miekuTvneboda samegreloSi WilaZeebic (Wilaiebic); aseve sam kategoriad iyofodnen aznaurebic. rac Seexeba glexebs, maT klass ZiriTadad mebegre _ meyalneebi warmoadgendnen, maT gadasaxadis gadaxda da muSaoba (begara) evalebodaT, isinic SesaZleblobebis mixedviT oTx jgufad iyofodnen. gabatonebuli klasi yovelnairad cdilobda Tavisi glexebis SenarCunebas da maT eqspluatacias uwevda. garkveuli wesebi da ierarqia arsebobda eklesiaSic. XV saukunis bolosaTvis gaRrmavda qveynis daSlis procesi, am dros samegrelos sazRvari imereTTan mdinare cxeniswyalTan gadioda, guriisagan ki mas rioni hyofda.  qveynis politikurma daqucmacebulobam da mefis centralizebuli xelisuflebis dasustebam xeli Seuwyo calkeul msxvil feodalTa gankerZoebas. XV saukunidan Zveli saerisTavoebis safuZvelze Camoyalibebas iwyebs safeodaloebi anu saTavadoebi, romlebic Seuval mamulebs warmoadgendnen da misi mflobelebi faqtobrivad patara mefeebi iyvnen (es ki SeuZlebels xdida qveynis gaerTianebas), swored maT ricxvs miekuTvneboda WilaZeTa samflobelo da dinastia. Zvelad miwebi mdidrebs ekuTvnodaT, sadac glexebs amuSavebdnen da mosavlis did nawils TviTon ibarebdnen. CvenTan  da maxlobel adgilebSi warCinebuli socialuri fena Wilaiebi, Semdeg ki korZaiebi iyvnen. cnobilia rom, pirvelad qalaq samtrediis aSenebas pirvel mais _ qviSanWalis mxare gegmavdnen, magram korZaiebi amis winaaRmdegi wavidnen, miwebs CamogvarTmeveno da maT  samtrediis mSeneblobis adgilis Sesacvlelad gubernators qrTami (fuli Tu oqro) miutanes, ramac gaWra da samtredia dRevandel adgilas aaSenes. XVIII saukunis meore naxevarSi dasavleT saqarTvelos samTavroTa Soris yvelaze Zlieri samegrelo iyo, romlis SemadgenlobaSi leCxumi da qvemo svaneTic Sedioda, aseve misi vasali iyo samurzayanos mTavari ServaSiZec. mefis ruseTSi (romlis imperiis nawilic maSin saqarTvelo iyo) arsebuli batonymobis dros Cveni sofelic igive cxovrebiT cxovrobda; 1801 wels ruseTis imperiam, misi imperatoris pavle  I _ is manifestis ZaliT qarTl _ kaxeTis samefo (aRmosavleT saqarTvelo) daipyro, 1803 wels ki samegreloc ruseTis qveSevrdomobaSi Sevida, misma mTavarma grigol dadainma ruseTis imperatoris aleqsandre I _ is erTgulebis fici dado. ruseTma saqarTveloSi da mis regionebSi TavisTvis sasurveli xelisufleba daayena. XIX saukunis damdegisaTvis dasavleT saqarTvelo ganuwyveteli sagareo Tu saSinao omebis gamo gaCanagebis pirze iyo misuli, am dros samegreloSi 75000 kaci cxovrobda. 1857 wels samegrelos samTavro ruseTis mier faqtobrivad gauqmda, 1867 wlamde samegrelos mmarTveli samTavros isev mTavar nikoloz (niko) dadianis saxeliT ganagebda. 1867 wels nikoloz dadianma ruseTis xelisuflebis winadadebiT nebayoflobiT Tqva uari samegrelos mTavris uflebebze da amrigad 1867 wels samegrelos samTavro iuridiuladac gauqmda. misi teritoria zugdidis, senakisa da leCxumis mazrebis saxiT quTaisis guberniaSi Sevida (1840 wels, manamde arsebuli quTaisis olqi  quTaisis mazram Secvala, 1846 wlis 14 dekembers ki saqarTvelos teritoriaze rusebma ori damoukidebeli erTeuli,  Tbilisisa da quTaisis guberniebi Seqmnes). XIX saukunis Sua xanebisaTvis ruseTSi feodalur _ batonymuri sistema mTeli rigi mizezebis gamo Rrma krizisSi Sevida da amitom misma imperatorma aleqsandre II _ m batonymoba gauqmebulad gamoacxada. samegreloSi batonymoba 1867 wlis damdegisaTvis gauqmda, rasac miuxedavad garkveuli naklovanebebisa, mainc progresuli mniSvneloba hqonda, man xeli Seuwyo burJuaziul urTierTobaTa damkvidrebas da qveynis socialur _ ekonomikur winsvlas. 1865 wlis debulebiT saqarTveloSi SemoRebul iqna soflis mmarTvelobis axali sistema. soflis mmarTveloba ganagebda sameurneo da administraciul saqmeebs. es iyo dawesebuleba mxolod glexTa wodebisaTvis, soflis mosaxleobis sxva fenebi (Tavadaznauroba, vaWrebi, samRvdeloeba da a. S.) mis saqmianobaSi monawileobas ar iRebda. debulebis mixedviT soflis sazogadoeba aerTianebda erT did an ramdenime patara sofels. soflis mmarTvelobis umaRles ganmkargulebel organos warmoadgenda soflis yriloba, romlis muSaobaSi monawileobis ufleba yoveli sasoflo komlis ufross gaaCnda. soflis aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas warmoadgenda soflis yrilobis mier arCeuli mamasaxlisi, misi moadgile (nacvali) da gadasaxadebis amkrefi. soflis yrilobis mier arCeul mamasaxliss gubernatori amtkicebda. gubernators mamasaxlisis gadayenebac SeeZlo. soflis yriloba irCevda soflis mosamarTleebsac. am ukanasknelT SeeZloT glexTa samoqalaqo saqmeebis garCeva 100 maneTis Rirebulebis farglebSi, soflis sasamarTlos ufleba ar hqonda ganexila sisxlis samarTlis saqmeebi. aseve qveyanaSi ganxorcielda samoqalaqo mmarTvelobisa da sasamarTlo reformebic.  yovelive amas, miuxedavad SezRuduli xasiaTisa, mainc progresuli mniSvneloba hqonda.  Cveni da maxlobeli sofel _ dasaxlebebis centri im dros savaraudod maranSi iyo.  1918 wlis 26 maiss, 5 saaTsa da 10 wuTze noe Jordaniam saqarTvelos damoukidebloba gamoacxada, romelmac 1921 wlis 25 Tebervlamde gasZlo, Semdeg qveyana bolSevikebma samxedro ZaliT daipyres. am dros Cveni soflis maxlobel sajavaxoSi bolSevikebi idgnen, aqeTa mxares ki menSevikebi (Jordanias momxreebi), adgili hqonda maT dapirispirebas. bolSevikebma gaimarjves (Jordania Tavisi momxreebiT baTumidan gemiT ucxoeTSi gaixizna) da saqarTvelo sabWoTa socialisturi respublikebis kavSirSi (ssrk) sxva respublikebTan erTad mokavSire respublikis statusiT ZaliT Seiyvanes, ssrk (masSi 15 mokavSire respublika Sedioda) imperiuli xasiaTis despoturi saxelmwifo iyo, romelmac mravali ubedureba daatexa Tavs masSi Semaval respublikebsa da xalxebs. Cveni soflis zogierTi mosaxlis saxlSi ramodenime jariskacisgan Semdgari jgufebi daayenes. komunistebma aqac ganaxorcieles `gakulakeba~ _ SeZlebuli glexobisaTvis sakuTrebis (xarebi, miwis dasamuSavebeli saSualebebi, miwebi) ZaliT CamorTmeva, ramac problemebi warmoSva; maT Seuties menSevikebsac.  Cveuli sabWoTa represiebi Cvens sofelsac Seexo: daiWires da dasajes udanaSaulo pirovnebebi, iyo dasmenebi da sxvadasxvagvari borotebani, admianTa uflebebis uxeSi darRvevebi. maTSi monawile _ TanamzraxvelTa saxelebi xalxis cnobierebaSi  dRemde mware mogonebadaa SemorCenili.
     30 _ ian wlebSi Camoyalibda kolmeurneoba, romelic Tavdapirvelad susti iyo, Semdeg ki soflis mTavar Zalad iqca.
     rogorc ukve aRvniSneT daaxloebiT 1936 wels dangreul iqna gauwyinaris sasaflaoze mdgari eklesia. komunisturi xelisufleba TviTonac aTeisturi iyo da xalxsac urwmunoebisaken ubiZgebda da am mxriv maT warmatebasac miaRwies. skolaSi bavSvebs ukrZalavdnen yovelive religiuri wesebis Sesrulebas da maTSi monawileobas. aRdgomis momdevno dReebSi moswavleebs skolaSi xelebs umowmebdnen wiTeli kvercxis saRebavis kvali xom ar emCneodaT. xalxs ukrZalavdnen locvas, religiur ritualebSi monawileobas,  xatebis, jvrebisa da siwmindeebis tarebasa da saxlSi qonas. yovelive amis Sedegad xalxi daSorda RmerTs, Tumca Sin xatebisa da jvrebis qona, locva, pirjvaris gadawera, sanTlebis anTeba, Cumad naTloba, saxeSecvlilad sakurTxis keTeba, iSviaTad eklesiaSi siarulic (romelic im dros iSviaTi iyo) mainc SemorCa mosaxleTa garkveul nawilSi, Tumca maSinac da nawilobriv dResac religiuri wesebis nawils xalxi arasworad da TviTneburad asrulebdnen.
     1941 wels, rodesac germania _ sabWoTa kavSiris omi daiwyo, romelsac did samamulo oms uwodebdnen,  gauwyinaridan  mravali mamakaci gaiwvies frontze. meqi,  ivane, varlam, aleqsandre da mixeil surgulaZeebi, prokof SublaZe,  vladimer, xuta (is holandiaSi, teqselis kunZulzec ibrZoda), konstantine, WiWiko da mixeil Turqiebi, akaki janjRava, terent arevazovi, giorgi, SoTa da barnab gogiSvilebi, kowia goToSia, akaki arvelaZe, ivane baaxia, Saliko kekeliZe da mravali sxva Tanasofleli frontis sxvadasxva ubnebze mamacurad ibrZodnen, sadac zogierTi daiRupa, daiWra, zogi ki ugzo _ ukvlod  daikarga,  ukan ar dabrunebulan. meomrebi zogjer welilebsac werdnen ojaxebs. es omi uaryofiTad aisaxa yoveliveze. qveyanaSi damZimda socialur _ ekonomikuri mdgomareoba, mravali bavSvi daoblda, ojaxebi mamakacebis gareSe darCa,  romelTa Sromac mZime tvirTad daawvaT Sin darCenil qalebs, bavSvebsa da moxucebs. bevrma mebrZolma ki sxvadasxva ordenebi da medlebi daimsaxures. im omis monawileebidan dRes TiTo _ orolaa SemorCenili (ivane arvelaZe, SoTa gogiSvili, valiko fircxalava). mas Semdeg rac saqarTvelo sabWoTa kavSirs gamoeyo da demokratiuli Rirebulebebis damkvidreba daiwyo (Tumca am mxriv bevri problema gaCnda), bevri Zveli Sexeduleba da Rirebuleba gadaisinja daGgadafasda. adamianebi  zogjer svams kiTxvas Tu ramdenad gamarTlebuli da aucilebeli iyo qarTveli xalxis aseTi Tavganwirva im omSi, romelic saqarTvelos teritoriaze ar warmoebda da Tanac Rirda Tu ara im ssrk  _ is aseTi gmiruli TavgametebiT dacva patara saqarTvelos mier, im imperiisa, romelmac TviTon dagvipyro 1921 wels,  manamde ki mefis ruseTis (`carizmis~) imperiis saxiT 1801 wels, wagvarTva erovnuli suvereniteti  da amdeni ubedureba damarTa Cvens qveyanas?! winamdebare naSromi ar warmoadgens vinmes (maT Soris avtorisac) poziciis gamoxatvis saSualebas, magram udavoa Semdegi: am kiTxvaSi aris Sinagani logika, magram yoveli faqti da movlena unda Sefasdes istoriuli midgomiT; sabWoTa kavSiris ocwliani RonisZiebebiTa da propagandiT qveyana erT muStad iyo Sekruli, masSi Semavali yvela eri nebiT Tu uneblied `erTian sabWoTa ojaxis~ ganuyofel nawilad Tvlida Tavs da rodesac omi daiwyo, isini umal gaeSurnen iq. jer erTi im omSi Tu ssrk damarcxdeboda da germania gaimarjvebda (Tavisi mokavSireebiT), maSin arc saqarTvelos daadgeboda kargi dRe, miT umetes rom faSistebi erTnairad Jletdnen rusebsac, qarTvelebsac da sxva mokavSireebsac da hitleris gegmebSi saqarTveloc dasapyrobad iyo gamiznuli, rac cxadia kargs arafers gviqadda da amitom qarTvelebi saqarTvelosac icavdnen; meore, maSin Cveni qveyana damoukidebeli ar iyo da mas kremlidan rasac ubrZanebdnen, mas ver gadauxvevda. vinme kidec rom damaluliyo da omSi ar wasuliyo, es namdvilad ar iqneboda misasalmebeli saqcieli da bolos, omis wlebSi saqarTvelo rom damoukidebeli respublika yofiliyo, is aucileblad antifaSistur mimarTulebas daikavebda, miT umetes, rom am blokSi gaerTiandnen dapirispirebuli qveynebi (ssrk da aSS). ase rom miuxedavad winandeli dapyrobebisa da ubedurebebisa, rac rusebma dagvmarTes, qarTvel da maT Soris Cven Tanasoflel mebrZolTa da zurgSi darCenilTa Rvawli da amagi udaod dasafasebelia da ara sayveduris Rirsi. ufro gvian ki, gasuli saukunis 80 _ ian wlebSi soflis axalgazrdobis maSindel sabWoTa armiis rigebSi gawveuli ramodenime maTgani (besarion Turqia, jambul fircxalava) avRaneTis omSi waiyvanes. damoukideblobis gamocxadebis Semdeg ki qarTuli jari Seiqmna da axalwveulebi aq gadian samxedro samsaxurs.
     kolmeurneTa mraval ojaxs saxlSi `Celtebze~ da `lastebze~ ejdaT abreSumi,  romelsac TuTis foTlebiT kvebavdnen. bolos ki rodesac abreSumis Wia parks amoaxvevda, adamianebi maT gaasufTavebdnen, daaxarisxebdnen da Caabarebdnen garkveuli anazRaurebis fasad.  adre meabreSumeobas marneli nastia xelmZRvanelobda, Semdeg ki irma Toduas deda Cito Todua. maSin mosaxleTa nawili dafnis foTolsa da xurmasac abarebda (xurmasa da karalioks axlac yidian).
     sabWoTa wyobilebis dros da damoukideblobis sawyis wlebSic sxva mankierebebTan erTad, aseve gavrcelebuli iyo meqrTameoba.  gansakuTrebiT ki am mxriv sagzao milicia (mas policia damoukideblobis wlebSi daerqva) gamoirCeoda,  romlebic uamrav avtomobilis mZRols arTmevdnen fuls. arc sxva saxis miliciaSi, samxedro da sasamarTlo organoebSi iyo ukeTesi mdgomareoba, iqac TanxiTa da nacnobobiT xdeboda `saqmis Cawyoba~.  umaRles saswavleblebSi misaReb gamocdebze da swavlis drosac leqtor _ maswavleblebs (aseve zogjer skolis pedagogebsac) xSirad aZlevdnen qrTams,  saCuqrebs,  pur _ marilsa da a.S. maRaziebi TviTneburad umatebdnen fasebs, iq myidvelis mier xurdis moTxovna ki saTakilo saqmed iTvleboda. am korufciam Cveni Tanasoflelebic daazarala, Tumca amave dros isic unda aRiniSnos rom, aseTi situaciiT bevri gauwyinareli adamianic sargeblobda kidec. es yovelive bolo wlebSi mniSvnelovanwilad gamosworda,  miuxedavad  amave periodSi  warmoSobili sxva siZneleebisa.
     90 _ iani wlebis dasawyisSi,  rodesac saqarTvelom damoukidebloba moipova (1991 wlis 9 aprils, 12 saaTsa da 30 wuTze zviad gamsaxurdiam damoukidebloba gamoacxada, qveyanaSi reformebi daiwyo da man kursi dasavleTisaken, evropuli Rirebulebebisaken aiRo) da 1991 wlis dekemberSi ssrk daiSala, Cvens sofelSic Tavi iCina mravalma siZnelem, gansakuTrebiT ki gamsaxurdias SeiaraRebuli gziT gadayenebisa da qveynis saTaveSi eduard SevardnaZis mosvlis Semdeg, daiwyo mwvave ekonomikuri krizisi, qalaqebSi sursaTi talonebze gaicemoda da maRaziebTan didi rigebi idga, sofladac sursaTisa da yvelanairi saqonlis deficiti iyo, ayvavda korufcia, mafia, Zneldeboda da damaxinjebul formas iRebda biznesisa da sabazro ekonomikis ganviTareba, moxda fulis inflacia (fuli `gabolda~), Zveli rusuli maneTi (`rubli~,  misi xurda iyo kapiki, aseve 10 maneTs Tumani erqva, 5 kapikian monetas _ Sauri, 20 kapikians ki abazi; es maneTi 60 _ iani wlebis dasawyisSi,  nikita xruSCovis (ssrk _ is cekas mdivani) dros Semovida mimoqcevaSi, man Secvala manamde arsebuli, 1947 wels SemoRebuli Zveli maneTi, romelic axalTan SedarebiT 10 _ jer naklebi kursisa iyo) am dros (ruseTis federaciis prezidentis boris elcinis mmarTvelobis periodSi) axliT Seicvala. maSin bankebSi bevr mosaxles hqonda anabrebi gaxsnili anu fuli gaprocentebuli hqondaT,  romlebic iqve darCaT, ver gamoitanes, Tanac cotaTi adre gamoacxades rom vinc bankebSi (maSin mxolod erTi, saxelmwifo banki arsebobda da ara kerZo bankebi) anabrebs gaxsnida, maT Tanxas gauormagebdnen, amis gamo salaroebTan rigebi dadga, magram yvelaferi tyuili aRmoCnda da is didZali fulebi daikarga. mogvianebiT ki saqarTvelom sakuTari droebiTi fuli _ kuponebi (mas xurda ar hqonda) SemoiRo (Tumca masTan erTad rusuli maneTic _ `rublica~ da amerikuli dolaric iyo mimoqcevaSi), romelic male Zalian gaufasurda (produqcia zogjer ramodenime milioni kuponi Rirda da Tan masze bevri ram ar iyideboda) da is 1995 wels qarTuli erovnuli valutiT _ lariT Seicvala (misi xurdaa TeTri),  ramac situacia SedarebiT daastabilura, es valuta dRemde mimoqcevaSia (Semdeg gamouSves larisa da TeTris axali saxis zogierTi kupiura da moneta). Tavidan 1,3 lari 1 dolaris eqvivalenti iyo, dRes ki am valutis kursia 1,75 lari 1 dolari, xolo mcire xnis win evropaSi SemoRebuli evro 2,4 lari Rirs,  ucxouri valuta dRes iSviaTad gamoiyeneba. maSin iyo sursaTisa da sxva saxis produqtebis krizisi,  siZvire, samaCablosa da afxazeTSi (iq ibrZoda Cveni Tanasofleli gia sturua) mimdinareobda omebi, gauwyinarSi Camoesaxla ramodenime ltolvili ojaxi, magaliTad:  boria Turqia, guram qarCava, raJden giorxeliZe, SoTa gogiSvili; aseve iyo ramodenime samoqalaqo omic. isedac mcire pensiebi da xelfasebi TveobiT ar gaicemoda,  mZime  iyo kriminogenuli viTareba, romlis drosac adgili hqonda mosaxleobis, pirutyvisa da sazogadoebrivi obieqtebis Zarcva _ dayaCaRebasa da adamianTaAdaSavebas. ramodenime Tanasofleli daiWires da daapatimres. erTxans soflis mamakacebi morigeobiT or _ or wyvilad mTeli Ramis ganmavlobaSi sanadiro TofebiT quCebsa da soflis Semosasvlelebs icavdnen. iyo sistematuri uSuqobac, rodesac deni mravali dRisa da kviris ganmavlobaSi saerTod ar modioda, am dros ganaTebisaTvis sanaTs (lamfas (lampas)), Wraqs, sanTels, farans, akumulatorsa da generatorebs (`dviJokebs~) iyenebdnen; iSviaTad  Suqi mcire xniT gvian RamiT CairTveboda da xalxi swored maSin recxavda sarecxs, auToebda, amuSavebda wylis tumboebs (`nasosebs~), midioda wisqvilSi (romelsac erTxans traqtoriTac amuSavebdnen) da asrulebda eleqtroenergiasTan dakavSirebul sxva saqmianobebs. am da sxva faqtorebma Zalian gaarTula soflis mosaxleTa yofa _ cxovreba.
     udenobis wlebSi televiziiT gadioda ramodenime teleseriali, magaliTad meqsikuri  seriali `veluri guli~ da venesueluri seriali `kasandra~, am dros xalxi (zogierTi maTgani meore quCidanac ki modioda) anzor goToSiasa da zogierT sxva ojaxSi (aseve birJaze da maSindel axal sawyobis SenobaSi) ikribeboda, romelTac benzinis eleqtrogeneratori (an akumulatoris televizori) hqondaT da didi interesiT ucqerodnen mas da sainformacio, sportul Tu sxva gadacemebs, romelic maSin iSviaT gasarTob Tu SemecnebiT saSualebas warmoadgenda.
     saqarTvelos sabWoTa kavSirSi yofnas, garda uaryofiTi faqtorebisa, mniSvnelovani dadebiTi movlenebic axlda Tan: am dros gavrcelebuli iyo saxelmwifo sakuTreba, saxelmwifo didad zrunavda mosaxleobis dasaqmebaze, saTanado anazRaurebaze da saerTod cxovrebis keTilmowyobaze. xalxs hqondaT maRali xelfasebi da pensiebi, yvela muSaobda, ar SeiZleboda Sromisunarian adamians arsad ar emuSava, rasac akontrolebdnen. arsebobda obligaciebi, romlebic gaanaRdes, aseve qalebi xSirad TamaSobdnen da dResac TamaSoben latareas, dabali iyo fasebi; sakvebi, tansacmeli, mravalgvari produqcia, TiTqmis mxolod adgilobrivi, ssrk _ is (samamulo) warmoebis iyo. importul, ucxoeTidan Camotanil saqonlis yidvas Znelad Tu moaxerxebdnen sadme, magaliTad ebraelebTan,  `daxlqveS~ da sxva (dRes ki produqciis didi umravlesoba importuli da xSirad naklebi xarisxisaa). aseve wamlebi, sawvavi (benzini, navTi, dizeli (`saliarka~)) da faqtobrivad yvelaferi xarisxiani da iafi iyo; ufasod Rebulobdnen yvela safexuris ganaTlebas da eqimTan mkurnalobac gadasaxadis gareSe SeiZleboda (Tumca mas xSirad mainc Cuqnidnen garkveul Tanxas meti yuradRebis moqcevis mizniT); saerTod Zlieri iyo qveynis ekonomika. swored im periodSi aSenda mosaxleTa saxlebi, organizaciebi, Camoyalibda saTanado wesrigi, kultura da saerTod cxovrebis wesi. damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg,  umetes SemTxvevaSi miwaze  da obieqtebze kerZo sakuTreba warmoiSva,  ramac sxva faqtorebTan erTad mZime situacia Seqmna. erT dros gamarTulad momuSave obieqtebis gaCanagebam mosaxleobis didi nawili umuSevrad datova, nawili ki soflidan qalaqebsa da ucxoeTSi _ evropis qveynebSi, umTavresad TurqeTsa da saberZneTSi wavida da iq iSova sarCo _ sabadeblis wyaro, iqauri bavSvebis ZiZad da moxucebis momvlelad muSaobis gziT. es emigrantebi saqarTveloSi TavianT ojaxebsa da axloblebs Tanxasa (umetesad sabanko gadaricxvis gziT) da `pasilikebs~ ugzavnian. adgilze darCenilTa nawili ki TviTdasaqmebulia ZiriTadad sakuTar nakveTebSi da saojaxo mcire mesaqonleobasa Tu mefrinveleobaSi,  sadac awarmoeben yvels, rZes, kvercxs, xorcs, aseve siminds, soios, lobios, sazamTros, nesvs, pilpilsa da sxva produqtebs,  romlebsac yidian adgilze an samtrediis, abaSisa Tu sxva bazrobebze da aRebuli TanxiT yiduloben ojaxisTvis saWiro produqts, nivTebsa Tu sxva aucileblobebs; zogs miwa daumuSavebeli rCeba (miwa `cdeba~), romelzec Txmelebi da kvantaciebi moedo. mxolod adamianTa mcire nawili axerxebs samsaxuris Sovnas. aseve gavrcelda Savi da feradi liTonebis jarTis Cabarebac. ramodenime mosaxles (saCino da nukri surgulaZeebi, zurab goToSia, nugzar beriZe, Tengiz lolua, jambul sturua da sxva) aqvs mcire zomis mefrinveleobis sawarmoebi _ sawiwileebi, wiwilebis gamosazrdeli oTaxi Tu calke Senoba (isini janmrTelobaze mavned moqmedeben), wiwilebsa da mozard qaTmebs yidian. nazi (naziko) xabeiSvils ki mcire xans ojaxSi inkubatoric hqonda,  mas denis gaTiSvis dros generatoriT amuSavebdnen.  90 _ ian wlebis Sua periodamde asakovani xalxi pensias Rebulobda mamakacebi 60 wlis, qalebi ki 55 wlis Semdeg, aRniSnuli droidan  sapensio asakma 5 wliT moimata.  dRes asakiT pensia 25 wlis samuSao staJis zemoT 90 lars Seadgens (adre is naklebi iyo),  naklebi staJis mqoneebis, aseve invalidebisa da zogierTi sxva kategoriis (marCenaldakargulebi, siRaribis zRvars qvemoT myofi ojaxebis fuladi daxmarebebi) pensia ki SedarebiT naklebia, amave dros samamulo da avRaneTis omebis monawileebisa da veteran milicielTa da sxva Zalovan samsaxurebSi namuSevar adamianTa pensiebi ufro metia. Zvelad pensiebs sofelSi kardakar, WiSkarTan Camoatarebdnen umTavresad fostalionebi (leionde goToSia, JuJuna SublaZe, naziko ninua da sxvebi, Semdeg ki mas dRemde pirveli maisis sakrebulos (yofili sabWos) SenobaSi arigebs lamara maCitaZe _ gogiSvili, axlaxans SemoiRes plastikuri baraTebic.
     Zveli ekonomikis ganadgurebam da axlis ararsebobam qalaqis zogierTi macxovrebeli sofels daubruna,  Tumca piriqiTa migraciasac hqonda adgili.
     damoukidebel saqarTveloSi Catarebuli sxvadasxva saxis arCevnebisa da referendumebis ubani Cvens sofelSi jer gauwyinaris maSindel axal kantoraSi, Semdeg ki  skolaSi iyo,  bolos is pirvel maisSi gadaitanes. komunisturi epoqis arCevnebs ki kantoraSi da skolaSi atarebdnen. winasaarCevno kompaniis dros kandidatebi masmediis saSualebebs iyeneben, aseve sofelSi Camoivlian, xvdebian mosaxleobas (amomrCevlebs), ewevian propaganda _ agitacias da sTxoven maT xmis micemas, quCebSi akraven plakatebs. arCevnebis dRes xalxi midis N11 saarCevno ubanze, iq gaivlian Sesabamis procedurebs da daxurul kabinaSi biuletenSi aRniSnuli kandidatisa Tu politikuri partiis nomris SemoxazviT xmas aZleven sasurvel pirovnebasa Tu partias.
     1993 wlis Semodgomaze samoqalaqo omis dros, rodesac erTmaneTs ebrZodnen eduard SevardnaZis samTavrobo da devnili zviad gamsaxurdias SeiaraRebuli Zalebi (orive mxares hqondaT Tavisi wili simarTlec da danaSaulic), romlis xazic metwilad maran _ naCxatauris sazRvarze, mdinare cxeniswylis xidTan gadioda, sofelSi xSirad ismoda srolebisa da afeTqebebis xmebi, maT Soris gansakuTrebiT Zlieri xmauri gamoiwvia erT _ erTi  saxis qvemexma (samTavrobo Zalebis poziciebidan gasrolilma, am Zalebs jaba ioseliani da Tengiz kitovani xelmZRvanelobdnen), ramac mosaxleoba sakmaod SeaSfoTa. amave wlis 23 oqtombers,  RamiT gauwyinarSi aTamde saartilerio bombi Camovarda (zviad gamsaxurdias Zalebis xelmZRvanelis, loTi qobalias SeiaraRebuli formirebebis mxridan gasrolilma), ris Sedegadac sakuTar saxlSi daiWra luba janjRava da daiRupa misi Svili da SviliSvili hamlet da rita gogiSvilebi (msxverplsa da zians sxva soflebSic hqonda adgili); es iyo soflis istoriaSi meore SemTxveva, rodesac erTdroulad ori adamiani daiRupa (pirvel tragedias qvemoT vnaxavT). garda amisa Wurvebma, maTi afeTqebis Sedegad gatyorcnilma `askolkebma~ daazianes maRazia, orive kantora, skola, meRoreobis ferma, mosaxleTa sacxovreblebi, pirutyvi, romlebTanac isini afeTqda; skolaSi Sewyda swavla. quCaSi ramodenimejer gadaadgilda SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mZime samxedro teqnika jariskacebianad (tankebma muxluxebis mcire kvali daamCnies asfalts),  caSi dabal simaRleze dafrinavda samTavrobo samxedro reaqtiuli TviTmfrinavebi (`istrupiteli samaliotebi~, isini Zlier xmaurs iwvevdnen), romlebic bombavdnen gamsaxurdias mxares mebrZol nawilebs, mosaxleobis nawili gaixizna, adgilze darCenilebi ki Soreuli srolebisa da dabombvebis xmebis gagonebisTanave xSirad arxebSi, ReleebSi, bogirebsa da dasaxlebuli adgilebisagan daSorebul teritoriebze (yanebSi), aseve qvis SenobebSi (magaliTad skolaSi,  blokis saxlebis qvemoTa sarTulebze) afarebdnen  Tavs. samtrediaSi srolebis gamo daiwva maRali Zabvis transformatori, misi cecxlmokidebuli zeTis sqelma kvamlma ca RrublebiviT dafara.
     am periodSi, rodesac avtobusebi ar moZraobdnen, xalxi robert (demur) janjRavas satvirTo avtomobiliT mgzavrobda. aseve dadioda reisze gia (gialo) gegeSiZec misabmeliani,  e.w. `lafetiani~ traqtoriT (erTxans avtomobilebs marnis xideze ar atarebdnen da iq brundebodnen, adamianebi ki zogjer iZulebulebi xdebodnen mdinareze fexiT, naviTa da boraniT,  `paroniT~ gadasuliyvnen); xSirad mosaxleoba velosipediT da saWapano transportiT (anu rogorc mas soflad moixsenieben cxeniT da `kaWkiT~) sargeblobda, xSirad qveiTadac gadaadgildebodnen,  fexiT Cadiodnen samtrediasa da abaSaSi  (aseve ufro Sorsac) da Semdeg aseve fexiT brundebodnen ukan. SeferxebiT muSaobda televizia da radio.
     omis damTavrebis Semdeg, 1994 wlis 26 noembers, meore quCaSi, erT _ erTi mosaxlis ezoSi afeTqda iq dadebuli Wurvi (is ojaxis patronma moitana marnidan Sin,  masSi arsebuli asafeTqebeli nivTierebis Tofis wamlad gamoyenebis mizniT), ris gamoc gardaicvala bavSvi _ raul janaSia da fexSi daiWra aseve arasrulwlovani beso gogiSvili, romelic Semdeg gamojanmrTelda, xolo am ojaxis wevrebi, sadac aRniSnuli ubedureba moxda sxvagan gadaesaxlnen, es saxli da ezo ki gardacvlilis ojaxis wevrebma daarbies. droTa ganmavlobaSi qveyanaSi situacia SedarebiT daregulirda, Tumca saboloo keTildReoba dRemde ar aris miRweuli. Cveni sofeli, iseve rogorc mTeli qveyana da zogierTi sazRvargareTis saxelmwifo, kvlav mravali rTuli problemis winaSe dgas (materialuri siduxWire, gaWirveba, umuSevroba, siZvire, arastabiluroba, sagareo da saSinao safrTxeebi da sxva).
     2003 wlis 23 noembris (giorgoba dRis) `vardebis revoluciaSi~,  romlis Sedegadac prezidenti eduard SevardnaZe da moqalaqeTa kavSiri qveynis mmarTvelobidan wavida da mixeil saakaSvili Tavisi nacionaluri partiiT xelisuflebaSi movida,  gauwyinarelebic Rebulobdnen monawileobas, eseni iyvnen murTaz surgulaZe, xviCa janjRava da iago Todua.
     2008 wlis agvistoSi ruseT _ saqarTvelos omma garkveulwilad daarRvia Cveni soflis simyudrovec. am konfliqtis dros ruseTis federaciis didi raodenobis SeiaraRebulma jarebma (mravalricxovani mZime teqnikiTa da aviaciiT) daikaves samegrelos (isini abaSis raionamdec movidnen), imereTis, qarTlisa da sxva teritoriebis didi nawili da miiwevdnen Tbilisisaken; iyo ngreva da msxverpli mSvidobian mosaxleobaSic. qveyanaSi kidev damatebiTi ltolvilebi gaCnda, maT Sesaxlebas Cvens skolaSic fiqrobdnen. maSin caSi dafrinavda ruseTis samxedro reaqtiuli aviacia (bombdamSenebi), maT mier aeroportebsa da sxva adgilebSi Camoyrili bombebis afeTqebebis xmebma SeaSina mosaxleoba, aseve Cvens sofels Tavze ramodenimejer gadaufrina upiloto safrenma aparatebmac, adamianebis nawili gaxizvnas fiqrobda. am dros soflis axalgazrda biWebi (xviCa janjRava, nikoloz gogiSvili, xviCa WiqaSua) axladSemoRebul samxedro rezervSi iyvnen gawveulni, rac SiSis safuZvels aZlierebda, magram male yvelaferi damSvidda, mtris jarebma ukan daixies. Tumca ruseTma damatebiT miitaca axalgorisa da kodoris teritoriebi (romlebTac manamde qarTuli  mxare akontrolebda) da aRiara `samxreT oseTisa~ (samaCablos, Sida qarTlis regionis) da afxazeTis damoukidebloba sxva, naklebad cnobil ramodenime saxelmwifosTan erTad (nauru, nikaragua, venesuela, maT es ruseTis gavleniT gaakeTes). ganaRmuli Wurvebis (romlebic ruseTis saokupacio jarebma datoves)  afeTqebis xmebi omis Semdegac ismoda. afeTqebaTa yru xmebi zogjer axlac ismis CvenTan, rac senakis samxedro bazaze qarTveli samxedroebis varjiSebiTaa gamowveuli.
     vinaidan dRes sofelSi eklesia ar aris,  amitom mrevli ZiriTadad pirveli maisis 2008 wlis 23 noembers nakurTx (gaxsnil)  wminda giorgis saxelobis qviTkirisagan nageb bazilikur eklesiaSi dadis (iq SemorCenilia Zveli eklesiis qvebCatanebuli betonis fundamentis naSTebi, romlebic farTobSi ufro didi zomisaa, vidre dRevandeli traZari, aqvea Zveli qvis sveti, jvari da qvissave fragmentic,  aq miwa amaRlebuli ar aris),  sadac moZRvaria dekanozi egnate (eriskacobaSi enver) miqaZe (tyvireli), romelic Cvens sofelSic asrulebs Sesabamis ritualebs (aseve qviSanWalaSi axlad aSenebulia, magram jer gaxsnili ar aris wminda giorgis saxelobis bazilikuri eklesia, iq Zveladac imave adgilas igive saxelobis xis taZari idga), xolo im taZarSi mgaloblebi arian rusudan SubiTiZe, Saqro (zaqaria) tyvaciria (tyvirelebi) da maia gegeWkori (pirvel maiseli),  zogjer sxvebic galoben, medaviTneebi _ gela verulaSvili (qviSanWalidan) da maia vaSakiZe (pirveli maisidan), stiqarosani ki levan talikaZea (kutaiweridan).  adre stiqarosani mamaos Svili vladimer (lado) miqaZe iyo, romelic mcire xnis win Tbilisis sasuliero akademiaSi wavida saswavleblad; aseve Txmelareli arsen axobaZec iyo stiqarosani, is amJamad marnis jvarTamaRlebis taZarSia medaviTned. am eklesiaSi sanTlebs, xatebs, wignebsa da sxva saeklesio nivTebs xSirad pirvel maiseli badri xoneliZe yidis. mama egnate amavdroulad tyviris macxovris eklesiis moZRvaricaa, is aseve adre marnis jvarTamaRlebis saxelobis taZris moZRvaric iyo.  ssrk _ is daSlisa da misgan saqarTvelos gamoyofis Semdeg bevri adamiani dadis eklesiaSi,  eswreba wirva _ locvas, RamisTevas, marxulobs, atarebs jvars, qristianulad cxovrobs, maT aravin uSlis aRmsareblobasa da sakuTari Sexedulebebis gamoTqmas. zogierTi adamiani ki dResac aTeistia. 1977 wlis 23 dekembridan (am dRes moxda misi aRsaydreba mcxeTis sveticxovelis sapatriarqo taZarSi) dRemde qveynis (saqarTvelos avtokefaluri (damoukidebeli), marTlmadidebluri samociqulo eklesiis) umaRlesi sasuliero piria sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos _ patriarqi, mcxeTa _ Tbilisis mTavarepiskoposi, biWvinTisa da cxum _ afxazeTis mitropoliti, uwmindesi da unetaresi ilia II (eriskacobaSi RuduSaur _ SiolaSvili, daibada 1933 wlis 4 ianvars, vladikavkazSi), manamde ki kaTolikos _ patriarqi daviT V (devdariani, yofili urbneli mitropoliti) iyo. Wyondidis (romlis SemadgenlobaSic aris abaSisa da martvilis raionebi) eparqiis mTavarepiskoposia meufe petre (caava), manamde ki am eparqias meufe giorgi (SalamberiZe) xelmZRvanelobda.
     xalxi saTanadod aRniSnavs saeklesio dResaswaulebs. bzoba dRes adamianebs eklesiidan nakurTxi bzis totebi moaqvT,  romlebsac mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi inaxaven, aseve saflavebze bzis totebs asoben; am dReebSi, saaRdgomod wmenden saflavebs. qristianul samyaroSi yvelaze didi qristianuli dResaswaulis _ aRdgomisaTvis aqac gansakuTrebulad emzadebian. endrosa da mananas saRebaviT wiTlad Rebaven kvercxebs, romlebTac Semdeg dReebSi erTmaneTs uWaxuneben; acxoben pasqas, namcxvrebsa da sxva mravalgvar saWmelebs. aRdgomasa da meore dRes gadian saflavebze, iq miaqvT pur _ marili da sasmelebi, gadaagoreben wiTel kvercxs,  midian eklesiaSi,  bevri marxulobs da eziareba kidec. aRdgomas xalxi erTmaneTs `qriste aRsdgas~ eubneba, pasuxad ki Rebuloben `WeSmaritad~, Camoivlian saxlebSi da dalocaven maT. SobisTvis tradiciaa goWis dakvla, sxva sakvebis momzadebasTan erTad acxoben Rvezlebs. 6 ianvars, RamiT bavSvebi sofelSi kardakar Camoivlian aliloze Sesabamisi simRera _ sagaloblebiT. bolo xans,  mariamobis damdeg saRamos Wiakokonas _ saburavebis cecxls anTeben; barbarobas, 17 dekembers gavrcelebuli tradiciis mixedviT sxvis ezoSi kargi fexiTa da guliT unda Cavidnen,  amitom bevri Tavs aridebs sxvasTan Casvlas, dilas saxlSi da ezoSi moabneven siminds, kanfetebs, suros marcvlebs,  xurda fuls. aseve iqcevian ZveliT axali wlis meore dResac, 15 ianvars, ferxoba dRes; mas da mraval sxva dResaswauls, xSirad Zveli droidan SemorCenili elferic axlavs Tan. aseve aRiniSneba sxva religiuri dResaswaulebic. gasuli aTaswleulis miwuruls gauwyinarSic Semovida e.w. `ieRovelTa~ (`iehovas mowmeebis~) seqta, isini mosaxleobaSi dadiodnen da maT urigebdnen (drogamoSvebiT axlac dadian) TavianT literaturas, wignebs, broSurebs, Jurnalebs, bukletebs (magaliTad `saguSago koSki~),  maT rigebSi ramodenime aqauri ojaxic gawevrianda da sxvebsac utarebdnen propaganda _ agitacias.
     Cvens sofelSi gavrcelebulia Semdegi gvarebi: surgulaZe, Turqia, arvelaZe, janjRava, janaSia, xaJomia da sxva. aris ufro naklebricxovani gvarebic, xolo beriZis gvaris warmomadgeneli ojaxi gauwyinarSi mxolod erTia (isini aq mTiani aWaridan Camosaxldnen 80 _ iani wlebis bolos),  miuxedavad imisa rom es gvari saqarTveloSi yvelaze mravalricxovania. aseve erTi ojaxia arevazovi, boWoriSvili,  karanaZe, naWyebia da sxvebi. aq yvelaze meti surgulaZeebis gvaria, 16 ojaxi, romlebic mTavar quCaze centramde saxloben. aq da Cvens mosazRvre soflebSi megruli dialeqti TiTqmis aravin icis, aqaur sasaubro enas Taviseburi kilo da aqcenti gaaCnia, sityvebsa da winadadebebs laparakis dros raime SesamCnevi maxvili, gaZliereba da gagrZeleba ar axasiaTebT. xSirad sityvebSi aso `a~ _ sa da `o~ _ s nacvlad vambobT aso `e~ _ s, magaliTad: wavida _ wevida, gaitane _ geitane, momewona _ memewona, moemzada _ meemzada da a.S. aris sxva saxis damaxinjebebic. Cvens sofelSi yvela adamiani qarTvelia, Tumca adre ramodenime sxva erovnebis (rusi, uzbeki) warmomadgenelic cxovrobda.
     amJamad sofels pirveli maisis ambulatoria (punqti) emsaxureba eqim mariam (maro) Coxelis xelmZRvanelobiT (is xSirad saxlSi dadis avadmyofebTan), iq eqTania ciuri kvaracxelia,  bavSvebis eqTani lali nikuraZe da stomatologi nargiza galdava. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi xdeba ufaso saswrafo samedicino daxmarebis gamoZaxeba abaSidan. is adre, sabWoTa wyobilebis dros aseve ufaso iyo. damoukideblobis sawyis wlebSi ki fasiani gaxda. daaxloebiT 2004 wlidan saswrafo kvlav ufasod gvemsaxureba `uaz~_is markis avtomobiliT, romelsac specifikuri signali (sirena) da zemoT lurji feris mocimcime naTurebi aqvs. sofelSi mosaxleobas ucrian sxvadasxva daavadebis sawinaaRmdego vaqcinebiT, zogjer isini adgilze gvemsaxurebian, aseve ramodenimejer aucres Sinaur cxovelebsa da frinvelebs, cofis, Wirisa da sxva daavadebebis sawinaaRmdego saSualebebiT. CvenTan cxovelebis avadmyofobis dros oleg ratiani da zuriko Turqia mogvyavs. drodadro sofelSi patrulic gamoCndeba, ubans emsaxureba inspeqtor _ gamomZiebeli, leitenanti soso sigua.
     miuxedavad qveyanaSi arsebuli siduxWirisa, saxelmwifo garkveulwilad zrunavs kidec sofelze da saerTod qveyanaze. axla droulad gaicema pensiebi (SeiZleba ramodenime Tvis pensiis winaswar, procentiani sesxis saxiT aRebac), xelfasebi, umweoTa, gaWirvebulebis, socialurad daucvelebis, igive xelmokleebis, erTi sityviT siRaribis zRvars qvemoT myofTa (30 + 25 lari) da ltolvilTa daxmarebebi, isini ramodenimejer gaizarda. 2004 wlidan gauqmda kerZo (privatizebuli) miwebis gadasaxadi da Camoiwera Zveli davalianebebi, sauravebi, soflis glexobas ramodenimejer ufasod dauriges Txevadi sawvavi (dizeli), sasuqi, fqvili, aseve maswavleblebs, pensionerebsa da xelmokle ojaxebs eleqtroenergiis gadasaxadis 50 lariani vauCeri; zogjer daariges humanitaruli daxmarebis amanaTebic, romlebSic sakvebi produqtebi iyo Cawyobili (brinji, lobio, rZis fxvnili, zeTi, Rvino da sxva). zogierT kategoriis moqalaqes (pedagogebs, pensionerebs, samxedroebs, policielebs, rkinigzaSi dasaqmebulebs, siRaribis zRvars qvemoT myof ojaxebs,  nebismier adamians,  romelic axlaxans SemoRebul iafi dazRvevis programaSi aris CarTuli) aqvs ufaso da iafi samedicino dazRveva, romliTac isini mniSvnelovani SeRavaTebiT sargebloben samedicino momsaxurebis sferoSi. saxelmwifo samsaxurebi, maRali Tanamdebobisa da SeZlebuli pirebi (magaliTad Tengiz kalandaZe) ramodenimejer daexmarnen soflis organizaciebs, xelmokle da avadmyof adamianebs. zogjer, rodesac vinmes gansakuTrebulad gauWirdeba (mZime avadmyofi, patimari, saxldamwvari) xalxi fuls Seagrovebs, akrefs da mas exmarebian. daaxloebiT 2006 wels mosaxleebs dauriges 5 kuburi metris SeSis ufasod misaRebi vauCerebi. srulad gaunaRdes samoqalaqo omiT dazaralebul ojaxebs fuladi daxmareba. aseve aRweres stiqiiT (Zlieri qariT) dazaralebulTa saxlebi. amJamad mraval adamians aqvs gamotanili bankebidan da lombardebidan (romlebic qalaqebSi mravladaa) Tanxa procentiani sesxis saxiT, aseve sxvadasxva saxis saqoneli ganvadebiT. dResac TamaSdeba sxvadasxvagvari latarea da loto, winaT `sprintsac~ TamaSobdnen. sofelSi zogma adamianma am gaTamaSebis Sedegad Tanxa moigo, xolo komunistebis periodSi ki vaso goToSiam, rogorc amas TviTon ambobs, latareaSi avtomanqana moigo. 2009 wels soflebis dasaxmareblad gamoiyo Tanxebi (maTgan gauwyinars Sexvda daaxloebiT 15000 lari),  romlis nawiliTac CvenTan skolis wina gzagamtarTan da gaRma quCis saZovarze  eqskavatoriT arxebi gawmindes da amoiRes, danarCeni TanxiT ki 2010 wlis maisSi iago Turqiasa da kaxa (duru) janjRavas xelmZRvanelobiT (`prarabi~ badri gigineiSvili, pirvel maiseli) adgilobrivi axalgazrdebis mier soflis centri, yofili kolmeurneobis 0,72 heqtari farTobis mqone ezo gaiwminda, maRaziisa da sawyobebis narCeni betonebis namsxvrevebis nawili eqskavatoriT iqve amoTxril ormoebSi Camarxes, danarCeni (ufro didi zomis) ki gareT gazides da gzebis kideebSi daawyves. es teritoria SemoiRoba 2,5 milimetri diametrisa da 4 santimetriani ujredebis mqone uJangavi (`nerJaveika~) mavTulbadiT (romelsac qvemoT betoni aqvs Casxmuli `setkis~ dasamagrebeli milebiT), mas zemoT `ugolniki~ aqvs gayolebuli da es Robe 228 metri sigrZisaa, romelsac qviSanWalis gzis mxares dauyenda mTavari Sesasvleli WiSkari patara karebianad (aseve ezos wina da ukana mxares patara, Casasvlel _ gamosasvleli karebisaTvisac adgilebia SerCeuli da wina mxares patara arxic amoiRes, ganaaxles) da es yovelive Ria ferad SeiReba. am samuSaoebis gamo jvris irgvliv arsebuli SomoRobva da qvemoT dafenili agurebi da masTan misasvleli biliki moSales, noembris TveSi ki jvars ganaTeba gaukeTes ramaz diasamiZis (baTumeli) mier naCuqari naTurebiani mnaTi plastikuri zoliT, romlis CamrTvel _ gamomrTvelic mosacdelis SenobaSia. aseve Wadris xeze dahkides vaxtang Turqias mier naCuqari gare ganaTebis naTura da amgvarad moewyo ganaTeba (misi `vikluCatelic~ mosacdelis,  `birJis~ SenobaSia),  xolo mis qvemoT daidga liTonis magida, romelsac betonis zedapiri aqvs da es teritoriac SemoiRoba. rogorc vTqviT am ezoSi skolisaken sam mwkrivad darges abaSis raionis sofel nosiridan Camotanili feixoias, xolo Robis Cayolebaze ki wiwvovanebis nergebi, aseve gadaRma darges qobuleTis raionis sofel Caqvidan Camotanili evkaliptis nergebi, romlebTac irgliv eklebi Somoakres pirutyvisagan dacvis mizniT. aq, yofili kolmeurneobis kantoris, sawyobebisa da teqnikis ezoSi eklesiis mSeneblobaa dagegmili, savaraudod wminda ninos saxelobisa, misTvis saWiro saSen masalad Zvel kantoris kedlebs daSlian da mas gamoiyeneben, aseve amave saqmisaTvis Zveli sawyobis saZirkvlidan qvebi amoiRes da aqve ezoSi daawyves. Tanxis nawili mosaxleobam gaiRo, garda amisa SeSis vauCerebi Sekribes da misi saSualebiT 2010 wlis Semodgomaze, qviSanWalis gzis gaswvriv, Zroxebis saZovris qarsafris bolo nawili (Txmelas xeebi) gauwyinarelma axalgazrda biWebma da kacebma `druJbebiT~ moWres, najaxebiTa da waldebiT gakafes (ufro mcire, tyis dasawyisi monakveTi ki saxelmwifom moWra da waiRo) da daiwyes misi SeSad gayidva (1 saJeni anu 1 `lafeti~,  daaxloebiT 10 kubametri damorili SeSa 250 lari,  `safeCed~ daWrili ki 300 lari, maTi nawili traqtorebiT gamozides da axladSemoRobil ezoSi dayares), ris Sedegadac Semosuli Tanxac amave saqmisTvisaa gamiznuli. garda amisa wels TxmelarSi, giga goToSias 4 heqtar farTobSi da kirkalaSi,  iona Toduas 1,2 heqtar farTobSi daTeses simindi.  is zafxulSi soflis biWebma gaToxnes, iuza kalandaZis traqtoriT (is giga goToSiasia) `daamaSines~, sasuqi mouyares (manve daTesa),  Semodgomaze ki Txmelaris yanebi fuCeCianad `CamoqviCes~ da sevast Toduas ezoSi Camozides, iq is mosaxleobam `daarCia~ da sasimindeSi Cayares (daaxloebiT 300 godori); kirkalis yana ki arsena surgulaZis ezoSi Camozides taroianad moWrili da aqac mosaxleobam motexa da imave sasimindeSi Cayara. misi gayidviT Semosuli Tanxebic amave saqmes moxmardeba, xolo Semdeg aseve mosaxleobaSic Camokrefen siminds. aris sxva samomavlo proeqtebic, magaliTad sasaflaosa da stadionis SemoRobva, soflis individualuri gamricxvelianeba, quCebis ganaTebis mowyoba, gazificireba (am mxriv ukve Sedga proeqti, specialistebma wels zafxulSi soflis quCebi Camoiares da Caixazes, xolo axali gazgmanawilebelis,  `ageresis~ ageba SesaZloa zomoT naxsenebi gazsadenis qviSanWalis gzasTan gadakveTis adgilas gadawydes),  skolisa da sabavSvo baRis Senobebis kapitalurad garemonteba da axali inventaris Semotana da sxva.
     gauwyinari teritoriulad pirveli maisis SemadgenlobaSia, is saSualo zomis sofelia da ufro didia  vidre qviSanWala,  magram pirvel maisTan da miT umetes maranTan SedarebiT is ufro pataraa. aqaur macxovreblebs dabadebisa da piradobis mowmobebSi  da zogierT sxva sabuTebSi sacxovrebel adgilad pirveli maisi aqvT miTiTebuli, Tumca Cvens sofels oficialuri statusi aqvs, rasac adasturebs skolis, sabavSvo baRis, biblioTekis, yofili kolmeurneobisa da agrofirmis beWdebze, blankebze da zogierT sxva oficialur sabuTebSi sityva _ gauwyinaris arseboba. adre Cvens skolaSi pirveli maisis bolo quCidanac dadiodnen bavSvebi, miuxedavad imisa rom maTTvis pirveli maisis saSualo skola ufro axlos iyo; garda amisa gauwyinaris kolmeurneobaSic nawilobriv iqauri muSebi msaxurobdnen; aseve pirvel xanebSi pirveli maisis bolo (grigoliebis) quCis amomrCevlebic Cvens ubanze aZlevdnen xmas. qalaq abaSis maxloblad aris sofeli Zveli abaSa (iqauri warmoSobisa iyo didi qarTveli mwerali konstantine gamsaxurdia) da aseve mdinare abaSa, is saTaves martvilis raionSi Rebulobs da texurs erTvis,  sofelebi zemo da qvemo abaSa (maT adre abaSa erqvaT) samtrediis raionSic arsebobs, aseve rogorc vTqviT drandaSi aris saabaSo. abaSis raionis garda sofeli pirveli maisi aseve xobis raionSic aris  sofel beliwyus SemadgenlobaSi.  pirveli maisis saxelobis quCa ki samtrediaSic iyo,  romelsac axla 26 maisis quCa hqvia; garda amisa samtrediis raionis sofel sajavaxos adre pirveli maisis saxelobis kolmeurneoba hqonda, xolo sofeli samtredia tyibulis raionSicaa sofel sawires SemadgenlobaSi, amave raionSia sofeli orpiric. mama egnate pirveli maisis Tems eklesiaSi saWilaod ixseniebs. damoukideblobis Semdeg cvlilebebi ganicada simbolikebmac, Seicvala saxelmwifo droSa (sabWoTa saqarTvelos xuTqimian varskvlav, namgal da uro gamosaxuli wiTeli droSa zviad gamsaxurdias mmarTvelobis dros samferovani Sindisferi droSiT, mixeil saakaSvilis mosvlis Semdeg ki xuTjvriani droSiT Seicvala), gerbi (gamsaxurdiam gerbad SemoiRo Svidqimian varskvlavSi Caxatuli, cxenze amxedrebuli TeTri giorgi,  saakaSvilma ki aseve TeTr cxenze amxedrebuli wminda giorgi,  romelic urCxuls klavs, mis garda gerbze kidev aris sxva naxatebi da warwerebi),  himni (gamsaxurdiam gr. abaSelis teqstisa da o. TaqTaqiSvilis musikis mqone sabWoTa himnis `idide marad, Cemo samSoblov,...~ magivrad SemoiRo himni `dideba~, romlis teqsti da musika kote focxiSvilma dawera, saakaSvilma ki saxelmwifo himnad zaqaria faliaSvilis musikis safuZvelze daviT maRraZis teqstdawerili da ioseb keWaymaZis mier damuSavebuli himni `Tavisufleba~ daawesa (gamsaxurdias dros atributika saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis droindeli iyo)), beWdebi, blankebi, oficialuri sabuTebi (mravali maTganidan amoiRes mamis saxelebi, axla TiTqmis ar iwereba daviTis Ze, giorgis asuli da sxva. adre da nawilobriv dResac adamianisaTvis mamis saxeliT mimarTva (`daviTiC~, `giorgovna~) zrdilobian formad iTvleboda; aseve gaauqmes erovnebis aRniSvnac). dRes, abaSis municipalitetis (raionis) gamgeobis rwmunebuli pirveli maisis TemSi nestor (valeri) ZiZiguria (2007 wlidan),  xolo abaSis municipalitetis sakrebuloSi pirveli maisis Temis N11 saarCevno ubnidan sxva soflebTan erTad gauwyinaris amomrCevlebmac xmaTa umravlesobiT Salva (gia) jRarkava airCies (2006 wlidan), abaSis municipalitetis sakrebulos Tavmjdomare iuri iobaiaa (2006 wlis 2 noembridan), abaSis raionis gamgebelia guram gunava (2008 wlis 24 ivnisidan), prezidentis rwmunebuli (gubernatori) samegrelo _ zemo svaneTis regionSi 2005 wlis ivlisidan _ zaza gorozia (daibada 1975 wlis 11 Tebervals, martvilis raionSi), xolo abaSis raionis maJoritari deputati saqarTvelos parlamentSi,  N63 abaSis saarCevno olqidan _ romanoz bJalava (2008 wlidan); saqarTvelos dedaqalaqia qalaqi Tbilisi,  2004 wlis 5 ianvridan qveynis prezidentia mixeil saakaSvili (daibada 1967 wlis 21 dekembers), premier _ ministri nika gilauri, parlamentis Tavmjdomare daviT baqraZea, saparlamento umravlesobaSi ki (mmarTveli partia) nacionaluri moZraobaa.
     sofeli 1989 wlis TebervalSi da 2001 wlis 9 _ 10 ianvars mTvaris sruli, xolo 1991 wlis 11 agvistos mzis nawilobrivi, 90% _ iani dabnelebis mowme gaxda; aseve 2009 wlis 31 dekembris da 2010 wlis 1 ianvris sazRvarze, zustad axali wlis dadgomis dros moxda mTvaris umniSvnelo dabneleba, mzisa da mTvaris dabnelebebs sxva drosac hqondaT adgili. erTxel cis dasavleT mxares ramodenime kviris ganmavlobaSi SeiniSneboda kometa,  mas mogrZo mkrTali kudi hqonda, Semdeg is TandaTan gadavida da gauCinarda. analogiur astronomiul movlenebs adrec dakvirvebia mosaxleoba. dila _ saRamos mowmendil caze, Sesabamisad aRmosavleT da dasavleT mxares xSirad Cans planeta venera, romelic wiTeli varskvlaviviT kaSkaSebs, RamiT ki cisferi iupiteri brwyinavs, is umTavresad cis samxreT mxares amSvenebs, romelsac Tu teleskopiT an Zlieri WogritiT (durbindiT) SevxedavT,  davinaxavT mis irgvliv 4 Tanamgzavrs, romlebic nel _ nela brunaven mis irgvliv.  aseTive xelsawyoTi dakvirvebisas mTvareze SevamCnevT reliefs, xolo muqi minis gamoyenebiT mzeze zogjer laqebic Cans. Tu uRrublo cas RamiT yuradRebiT davakvirdebiT galaqtikis mkrTalad mnaT zolsac SevamCnevT. varskvlaviani da mTvariani Rameebi CvenTanac sakmaod myudro da mimzidvelia.
     sofelSi sxvadasxva dros igrZnoboda miwisZvrebi, romlebmac didi ziani miayenes Cvens da mezobel saxelmwifoebs (somxeTSi spitakis olqis, CvenTan saCxeresa da raWaSi momxdari miwisZvrebi da sxva).  Tumca am miwisqveSa biZgebis simZlavre  aq  didi ar yofila da mas raime ziani ar gamouwvevia.
     gauwyinarSi kerZo, ZiriTadad mozardi orsarTuliani, xis, aguris, berketisa da Sereuli masalis oda saxlebi (mis pirvel sarTuls `padvals~ uwodeben, mTeli Senobis sasargeblo sacxovrebeli farTi 150 _ 400 kvadratuli metria) da aseve maT ukan mdgari miwispira, erTsarTuliani, SedarebiT patara zomis (e.w. `quxna~, sasargeblo sacxovrebeli farTi 25 _ 80 kvadratuli metria) saxlebia gavrcelebuli; Tumca gvxvdeba maRal saZirkvelze (`boknebze~, `balaverze~) mdgari erTsarTuliani (e.w. `beletaJi~) da finuri stilis sacxovrebeli Senobebic. saxlebze kibeebia midgmuli, maT SigniT mowyobili aqvT Semosasvleli (zogjer Seminuli SuSabandi), misaRebi, saZinebeli (`spalna~), didi darbaziseburi (`zala~),  yoveldRiurad mosaxmari, saTavso _ sakuWnao, `kladao~ da sxva daniSnulebis oTaxebi, aseve aivani (`ploSadi~),  `balkoni~ da winkari. cota xnis winaT ramodenime mosaxlem (nukri surgulaZe, anzor goToSia) aaSena SuaSi derefniani Senobebic. saxlebs aqvT Weri (`pataloki~), iataki (`poli~), kedlebi,  `garbilebi~, `strafilebi~, sartylebi, `omuzebi~, `vaciebi~, `plankebi~, `reikebi~, ficrebi, aseve karebi da Seminuli fanjrebi (`akoSkebi stekloebiT~) `zanaveskebze~ da Storebze dakidebuli fardebiT, eleqtroWaRebi (`lustrebi~, zogjer marto naTurebi, `lampoCkebi~). farTod gamoiyeneba xaliCa (noxi), laqi, saRebavi (`kraska~), Spaleri. axlaxans daiwyo gavrceleba metaloplastmasis kar _ fanjrebma da plastmasis asakravebma Werze, kedlebsa da iatakze (`metlaxi~). oTaxebSi dgas saTanado aveji (`veSi~):  karada (`Skafi~),  skivri (tansacmel _ fexsacmeliT),  taxti,  divani, kamodi,  `tumboCka~,  `stenka~,  `triliaJi~,  Taro,  tansacmlis sakidi (`viSolka~), sawolebi (loginebi, `kravotebi~ qveSsagebeliTa da TeTreuliT),   magida (`stoli~),  skamebi, `jirkoebi~, savarZlebi (`kresloebi) da sxva; aqvT WurWeli  (TefSebi (`sainebi~),  doqebi,  Wiqebi (`staqnebi~),  finjnebi  (`kuruSkebi~),  vazebi,  dana _ Canglebi, kovzebi, qilebi (`bankebi~) da a.S.) da eleqtroxelsawyoebi: macivari,  sarecxi da sakeravi manqanebi, eleqtroqura (`pleta~),  eleqtromaduRara, televizori, radio, uTo, farani da sxva inventari; aseve balonis gazqura, pirveladi samedicino saSualebebi _ Termometri, wnevis sazomi aparati, `grelka~, zogs glukometric. TiTqmis yvela ojaxs aseve Sin aqvT wminda xatebi,  jvrebi,  sanTlebi,  kandelebi, nakurTxi wyali, wminda zeTi,  aseve biblia,  axali aRTqma da fsalmunebi, locvani, fsalmunebi, wmindanTa cxovreba da sxva religiuri literatura da siwmindeebi, bevrs ki maTi kuTxec aqvs mowyobili. mosaxleebi saxlebis gasaTbobad (aseve sakvebis mosamzadeblad gazqurasTan erTad) SeSis Rumels (`feCs~) iyeneben,  romelsac haerRumeli (`duxonka~) aqvs.  Tbil amindSi ki mxolod agurisagan naSen buxrebs anTeben. Senobebi ZiriTadad SiferiTaa daxuruli, Tumca gvxvdeba Zveleburi kramitis saxuravic, aseve zogjer axladSemoRebul Tunuqis (`JeStis~) gadaxurvasac SevxvdebiT (erT mosaxles, nukri surgulaZes plastmasis saxuravic aqvs), saxuravebis kideebs irgvliv wvimis wylis Rarebi, `Jolopebi~ aqvT Semoyolebulebi. rezo (kuWu) da Tamaz surgulaZeebs saziaro oda saxli aqvT. saxlebis aSenebis ostatebi iyvnen Tu arian vano surgulaZe, JorJi Turqia, kolia janaSia, jibul da fridon miqaZeebi,  oTar janjRava, muriko fircxalava, jombar baaxia da sxvebi.
     sacxovrebel saxlebsa da ezoebSi xSirad aris Tagvi (virTxa), romelsac xafangebiT, sawamlavebiT da aseve katebiTa da ZaRlebiT ebrZvian; Tbil sezonSi gavrcelebulia koRo _ buzebi, obobebi, bzikebi (zogjer futkrebic, is CvenTan iSviaTad hyavT) tarakanebi, WianWvelebi da sxva mwerebi, romelTac wamlaven da kar _ fanjrebze wvrilad naqsov fardebs Camoafareben; xSirad xis nakeTobebs (aveji, kedlebi, iataki, Weri) krili azianebs, xolo CvenTan arsebuli sinestis (gansakuTrebiT pirvel sarTulze) gamo zogjer sagnebs obi moedeba (amis asacileblad saWiroa xSiri ganiaveba) da swrafad lpebian, aseve iJangeba liTonis nakeTobebic,  rac garkveul usiamovno sunsa antisanitarias qmnis.
     ezoebi, romelTa umetesobas win liTonis meseri (`zabori~) aqvs (mTavari quCis aramkvidr macxovrebel maura balavaZes ezos win `setkasTan~ erTad dafnebisa da eklebis cocxali Robe aqvs gayolebuli, ufro dabali xarisxis eklebis Robe aqvs jemal mgelaZes da wisqvilis quCaze aramudmivad mcxovreb qeTevan alanias, xolo dafnebis Robe _ valer jalaRonias; wina mxares zogjer aqvT `setkisa~ da iSviaTad xis Cxirebis, `reSoTqebis~ Robeebic), didi, figurebiani, avtomobilis Casasvleli WiSkariTa da patara, adamianis Casasvleli kariT, sakmaod didia da maT metwilad marTkuTxa forma aqvT (maTi farTobi xSirad 0,25 _ 1 heqtaria). Zvelad ezoebi metwilad trifoliatebiT, eklebiT, xis CxirebiT hqondaT SemoRobili, WiSkrebs ki bJolas xisagan amzadebdnen. dRes ezos sazRvrebis SeRobvis (goras) sxva monakveTebi umetesad mavTulbadis an xis Cxirebisaa (`reSoTqebi~).  mezoblebTan gadasasvleli karebi yvela ezos aqvs orive  gverdiT. ojaxebs ezoebSi mowyobili aqvT sasmeli wylis Wa (qvebiT an betonis gvimebiT amoSenebuli, mas miwis zemoT aseve betonis, iSviaTad ki Zveleburi Tixis gvimi adgas da iqedan wyals wowinarebiTa da `rolikze~ gadadebuli vedroiani bagiriT iReben) da WaburRili,  wylis avzi (baki),  msxvilfexa da wvrilfexa pirutyvis boseli  (boga, saRore),  frinvelebis samyofi  (saqaTme), abano, sapirfareSo, sxvadasxva saxis damxmare Senobebi, sagnebi; aqvT sazeinklo iaraRebi: CaquCi (`malatoki~), uro (`kvalta~), lursmnebi, qlibi, qanCis gasaRebebi (`kluCebi~), saxraxnisi (`atverka~), SalaSini, brtyeltuCa (`plosko~),  marwuxi (`gazi~),  Zalayini  (`lomi~)  da sxva; aseve miwisa da xis dasamuSavebeli iaraRebi: bari, niCabi (`lafaTqa~), fiwali, najaxi (waldi, rusuli da qarTuli najaxebi),  xerxi (birdabiric),  weraqvi (`kirka~)  da a.S.  mosaxleobas  ezoebSi aqvT SemoRobili bostnebi, sadac Tesaven pomidors, kitrs (maT xSirad wamlaven Sabiamnisa da kiris wyalxsnarebis nareviT da sxva qimikatebiT), pilpils, mravalgvar mwvanils _ qinZi, niaxuri,  oxraxuSi (`petruSka~),  xaxvi,  niori,  fxali da a.S.  Cvens pirobebSi xarobs Semdegi xeebi: vaSli,  msxali, atami,  tyemali,  aluCa,  leRvi,  buSmala (baSmala),  wabli, bali, alubali (`qviSna~), kakali (nigozi),  broweuli, TuTa (bJola), komSi (bia), xurma, karalioki, kowaxuri, Txili da sxva xili, gavrcelebulia damynoba da dawigneba; aseve Wadari, ifani (kopiti), lifani, alvis xe, tirifi,  `lestvenica~,  akacia (eklis xe),  verxvi, cacxvi,  dafna,  palma da sxva;  xeebze da saxuravebze zogjer modebulia xavsebi da suroebi. aq gavrcelebulia yvavilebi: ia, enZela, nargizi (`narcisi~), iasamani, vardi, pioni, georgina, TeTrburTulebiani, agava, dracana, gvirila da sxva mravali. aseve ojaxebSi aqvT mravalgvari qoTnis yvavilebic: balba,  dedinacvalis  ena,  kaqtusi, aloe, varskvlava, saaxalwlo da a.S. zogierT mosaxles polieTilenis (celofnis) saTburic aqvs yvavilebiTa da bostneuliT. xalxs hyavs sasargeblo Sinauri cxovelebi, ZiriTadad msxvilfexa _ rqosani pirutyvi Zroxa 2 _ 7 suli, (meore quCaSi iSviaTad Txac), aseve  cxeni,  Rori 1 _ 3 suli, ZaRli, kata (soso Turqias adre maimuni hyavda) da aTeulobiT frTa frinvelebi (gavrcelebulia qaTami, indauri, ixvi (`kvata~), bati,  jemal Toduas adre farSevangic hyavda). bevr mosaxles ukana ezoSi (zogierTs wina da gverdiTa mxaresac) da TiTqmis yvela ojaxs gadaRma yanebi aqvT (daaxloebiT 0,5 _ 1 heqtari). sofelSi ojaxebi qalaqis ojaxebisa da binebisagan gansxvavebiT danomrili ar arian, mxolod badri surgulaZis WiSkars aweria figurebiT `1 9 m i S a 6 0 w surgulaZe~,  badri surgulaZis aw gardacvlili mamis saxeli da WiSkris dayenebis TariRi.
     sofelSi zogjer adgili aqvs raime mizezis gamo macxovreblebis gadasaxlebas soflis SigniT da mis gareTac. zogierTi ojaxi ki sofelSi Camovida da axal mosaxled, komlad (soflis macxovreblad) dafuZnda, am movlenas yvelaze metad adgili hqonda 90 _ iani wlebis dasawyisSi, rodesac gauwyinarSi mTiani aWaridan ojaxebi Camoasaxles iq momxdari stiqiuri ubedurebis (mewyeri, zvavi, Rvarcofi) gamo (SoTa, axmet, Saxzad, nugzar, elguja futkaraZeebi, nugzar beriZe da sxva), maTi nawili mogvianebiT isev daubrunda Tavis regions.  aseve amave periodSi, rodesac qveynis damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg mZime socialur _ ekonomikuri mdgomareoba Seiqmna da qalaqebSi warmoebebi gaCerda, am dros soflad Camovidnen qalaqis zogierTi macxovreblebi. drodadro  icvleba demografiuli  mdgomareobac.
     gauwyinarSi saero dResaswaulebsac aRniSnaven, romelTaganac gamorCeulia axali weli. Zalian didi xnis winaT iyo dro, rodesac dros ar iTvlidnen. msoflioSi axali wlis winamorbedi dResaswaulis istoria 25 saukunes iTvlis. mecnierTa azriT pirvelad Zvelma Sumerebma (mesopotamiaSi) daiwyes axali wlis aRniSvna, rac Semdeg Taviseburi formebiT mTels msoflioSi gavrcelda. pirvelad, Cveni welTaRricxviT 153 wels, romis senatma axali wlis dawyebis TariRad 1 ianvari gamoacxada maTi warmarTuli RvTaebis _ ianusis saxelis mixedviT, qarTvelebi am Tves apniss uwodebdnen; dResac msoflioSi umTavresad am dros iwyeba axali weli. saqarTveloSi axali wlis aRniSvnis tradiciebi Soreul warsulSi Caisaxa, Cvenamde moRweuli cnobebis mixedviT saqarTveloSi IV saukuneSi axal wels 6 agvistos aRniSnavdnen, VII saukuneSi agvisto seqtembriT Seicvala, IX saukuneSi ki am dRes martSi aRniSnavdnen, ianvarSi ki axal wels saqarTveloSi XIV saukunidan zeimoben, rasac adasturebs XIV saukunis matianeSi mocemuli wes _ Cveulebebis aRweriloba, romlebic sakmaod hgavs dRevandels. am dRisaTvis awyoben naZvis xes (`iolkas~, rac CvenTan XVIII saukunis bolodan daiwyes, aseve zogjer CiCilaksac), mas morTaven lamazi saTamaSoebiT, brWyviala wvimebiT,  mocimcime feradi naTurebiT,  romelsac ZveliT axali wlis Semdeg daSlian. pirveli naZvis xe elzasSi, Tanamedrove safrangeTis teritoriaze, qalaq selestaSi dadges 1521 wels,  pirveli naZvis xis saTamaSo,  SuSis burTi XVI saukunis dasasruls saqsoniaSi gamoCnda, xolo pirveli eleqtronuli girlanda 1895 wels ainTo amerikaSi,  TeTri saxlis win mdgar saaxalwlo naZvis xeze. 1927 wels axali wlis aRniSvnis tradicia sabWoTa kavSirSi antireligiur kampanias Seewira, naZvis xe `religiur gadmonaSTad~ Seiracxa da is akrZales. am SezRudvam mxolod 6 wels gaZlo. ukve stalinis brZanebiT 1934 wels xalxs daubrunes sayvareli dResasawauli, Tumca maSindel ideologiur marwuxebs is mainc ver gadaurCa: iq sadac adre RmerTebisaTvis gankuTvnili mzis simbolo iyo ganTavsebuli, naZvis xis zemoT, kenweroSi, axla ukve sabWoTa simbolo, wiTeli xuTqimiani varskvlavi daamagres, SuSis burTebis adgilas ki muyaos traqtorebi da kombainebi dahkides,  Tovlis babuas mdidruli bewvis magivrad xalaTi Caacves.
      saaxalwlod akeTeben namcxvrebs, gozinays, sxva tkbileulsa da mravalgvar saWmels. axali wlis dadgomis dros,  Ramis 12 saaTze Tofebs, bolo wlebidan feierverkebs (maSxalebs), asafeTqeblebs (`xlapuSkebs~) srolaven, am wlis bolos qvemoT cecxlSenTebulma sahaero burTma pirvelad gadaifrina haerSi, Zvelad haerburTi Tu paraSuti Camovarda. xalxi erTimeores stumroben da ulocaven am dRes. saaxalwlod televiziiTa da radioTi sazeimo gadacemebs uSveben,  magram vinaidan es dResaswauli  Sobis marxvaSia, adamianTa nawili Tavs aridebs mis gansakuTrebulad aRniSvnas. zogierTi 14 ianvars ZveliT axal wels aRniSnavs,  rodesac ukve xsnilia (axali stili XX saukunis 20 _ ian wlebSi SemoiRes), 2000 wlis dasrulebiTa da 2001 wlis dadgomiT dasrulda XX saukunec (1 saukuneSi 3155760000 wamia) da amavdroulad II aTaswleulic, dadga XXI saukune da III aTaswleuli. SedarebiT naklebi masStabebiT zeimoben sxva dResaswaulebsac. zogjer ixdian dabadebis dRes, akeTeben sazeimo wveulebebs bavSvis SeZenis, naTlobisa Tu sxva movlenebTan dakavSirebiT. aseve samtrediisa da xonis televiziebis saSualebiT ulocaven erTmaneTs mniSvnelovan TariRebs. sabWoTa kavSirSi yofnis dros aRniSnavdnen Sesabamis TariRebsac: 8 marti _ qalTa dRe  (am dRes, 3 martsa (dedis dRe,  romelic 90 _ iani wlebidan dawesda) da 9 maiss dResac aRniSnaven naklebi pompezurobiT); 1 maisi _ mSromelTa saerTaSoriso solidarobis dRe; 9 maisi _ germaniaze gamarjvebis dRe; 7 noemberi _ socialisturi revoluciis dRe da sxva.  zeimis dros adamianebi erTmaneTs Cuqnian saCuqrebs (ZRvens)  da zogjer Tanxasac.
      yvelaze xalxmravali da RirsSesaniSnavi ki qorwilia. is SeiZleba iyos moyvaniTi, wayvaniTi an dabrunebiTi. gvxvdeba rogorc SeTanxmebiT moyvanisa da gaTxovebis, aseve motacebisa da gaparvis SemTxvevebic. am dRisaTvis winaswar xangrZlivad emzadebian. specialurad amisaTvis gagzavnili kaci sityviT dapatiJeben (adre ki lamazad gaformebuli mosawvevi baraTebis saSualebiT atyobinebdnen) mezoblebsa da axlobel _ naTesavebs, romlebic am dros ojaxs garkveuli TanxiTa (mas calke oTaxSi ori adamiani, damwerebi Rebulobs da wers) da produqtiT (yveli, kvercxi, qaTami, indauri, goWi),  aseve fizikuradac exmarebian. daniSnaven Tavkacsa da Tavqals, romlebsac qorwilis gaZRola evalebaT.  ezoSi dgamen grZel, wyalgaumtari qsovilisagan (`brizentisagan~) damzadebul karavs,  e.w. `sefas~, romelic liTonis sayrdenebs (e.w. `dugebs~) eyrdnoba.  mas mezobeli soflebidan WurWlebianad qiraoben ramodenime dRiT. sefaSi gahyavT eleqtrodeni, iq gaSlian sufras _ grZel, `stolsafargadafarebul~ magidebs qaRaldebgadakruli skamebiT, sadac daawyoben umetesad `povaris~ xelmZRvanelobiT momzadebul mravalgvar saWmels: puri,  mWadi,  Romi,  xaWapuri, aCma, pica, xorci,  mwvadebi, wvniani xorci (`salianka~, ostri, baJe), Tevzi, ikra, Rvino, sxvadasxvagvari limonaTi,  koka _ kola,  fanta,  mineraluri  wyali (borjomi,  nabeRlavi),  wveni, mwnili (mJave), fxali, mwvanilebi, vinegreti,  felamuSi, CurCxela, mravalnairi namcxvari (zRapari, napoleoni, ideali, ruleti, baqlama, qada da sxva),  xili,  vaSli,  atami,  Txili, kanfetebi da a.S. sufras sistematurad amarageben saWmel _ sasmelebiT, pur _ marils xSirad birJaze da mezoblebTanac agzavnian. magidebis dasavleT bolos ki nefe _ dedofali zis SemaRlebul adgilas _ prezidiumSi. maT win patara sufras Slian sadedoflo tortiTa da sxva saxis pur _ mariliT, xolo gverdiT hyavT mejvareebi (Safirebi);  iqvea eleqtromusikis mowyobilobac Tavisi musikosebis TanxlebiT.  maT wina mxares mcire sacekvao adgils toveben.  sefas, saxlsa da siZe _ dedoflis manqanas feradi lentebiT,  qaRaldebiT,  yvavilebiTa da mwvane  totebiT morTaven. saxlsa da ezos alageben, awesrigeben da Tu saWiroa aremonteben.
      siZes Savi feris Sarval _ kostumi acvia TeTri perangiTa da halstuxiT, patarZals ki farTo, grZeli, TeTri sadedoflo kaba,  mas salonSi  ukeTeben makiaJsa da Seabneven Zvirfaseulobas (oqros,  vercxlisa Tu briliantis beWdebs, samajurebs, mZivebs (`Zewkvs, cefs~)); orTaves TiTze ukeTiaT saqorwino oqros mrgvali (`kalico~) beWdebi. xelis mowerisa (am dros coli xSirad qmris gvarze gadadis, am teqstSi zogjer qalis es gvari weria) da eklesiaSi jvrisweris (jvriswera sabWoTa periodSi TiTqmis ar xdeboda) Semdeg maT mayrionTan erTad avtomobilebis koloniT signalebiT moiyvaneben, romelTac jer saxlSi,  saTanado oTaxSi,  e.w. `zalaSi~ aiyvaneben da ukana mxares daayeneben. saxlis SesasvlelTan maT gadmopirqvavebul TefSs daudeben, romelsac isini fexiT gatexaven da siZis deda (patarZlis dedamTili) pirSi kanfets CaudebT. axladdaqorwinebul col _ qmars gverdiT mejvareebi udgaT, isini Semdeg maT Svils mounaTlaven, maT win ki sufraa gaSlili sadedoflo tortiT, namcxvrebiT, tkbileuliTa da SampanurebiT, maT xalxi marjvnidan Semouvlis da Tan wyvils miulocaven gabednierebas, zogierTi samkaulebsac aCuqebs. Semdeg siZe _ dedofals sefaSi cekviT Seiyvaneben, sadac xalxi ukve zis da maTTvis gankuTvnil adgilas dasvamen. pirvelad daniSnaven Tamadas (Tamada xSirad aris malxaz Turqia, adre zaza Turqiac iyo), romelic sufras uZRveba da mis TavSi zis, is pirvelad uflis sadidebel da mSvidobis sadRegrZeloebs ityvis, Semdeg siZe _ dedoflisa da a. S.  imarTeba qeifi, ukravs qarTuli da ucxouri musikebi, mRerian da cekvaven. qorwilebi umetesad saRamos ewyoba, is xSirad mTeli RamiT da meore dResac grZeldeba. yovelive amas videokameriTa da fotoaparatebiT iReben, raTa mas Semdeg uyuron da momaval Taobebsac gadascen es samaxsovro faqti.­ mis gadaxdas bolo wlebSi marxvis dros eridebian. qorwilis Semdeg WurWels recxaven, danakliss anazRaureben da mas daSlil sefasTan erTad kvlav patrons ubruneben (mis wasaReb _ wamosaRebad ZiriTadad traqtorsa da `lafets~ iyeneben). avtomanqanebis Semosvlamde siZe _ patarZali cxenebSebmuli  etliani faetoniT mohyavdaT; aseve maSin ar iyo sefa da sxdoma oTaxebSi ewyoboda. vinaidan denic ar iyo Semosuli, musikebs orRaniT, doliT (barabaniT), garmoniT (akordeoniT), ConguriT, salamuriTa da sxva araeleqtroinstrumentebiT ukravdnen, gasanaTeblad anTebdnen lampebs. imdroindel qorwilebsa da sxva saxis wveulebebs dRevandelTan SedarebiT mcire  masStabebi  hqondaT.
     CvenTan quCebis umetesoba moasfaltebulia, Tumca is ukve dazianebulia, maTze mravladaa Rrmulebi (`iamkebi~) da bzarebi. gzebis kideebSi, mosaxleobis wina da ukana ezoebSi Txrilebi, Releebi da arxebia gayvanili,  raTa wvimisa da Tovlis nadnobi wylebi daiwritos da mosaxleobis kar _ midamo  ar datboros,  aseve arxebiTaa daqselili sayane farTobebi da saZovrebi. adre quCebis kideSi dayenebuli iyo sagzao niSnebi (nikoloz gogiSvilis ezos win, skolis arsebobis gamo gamafrTxilebeli samkuTxa niSani `bavSvebi~) da lozungiseburi warwerebi  (`trafaretebi~, magaliTad tariel surgulaZis ezos win,  meore quCaSi da sxva),  romlebic Semdeg moSales.
     sofelSi winaT fostalionebi Jurnal _ gazeTebsa (maT ojaxebi iwerdnen) da werilebs daatarebdnen (romlebsac WiSkarSi Camodobdnen an iqve myof safosto yuTSi agdebdnen), eseni iyvnen: anton lifareiSvili, Tina grigolia, Salva, leonide da qeTevan goToSiebi, iuza SaTiriSvili, omar (xuzura) qoqaZe, naTela samseiSvili, leila surgulaZe, JuJuna da Jora SublaZeebi (iyvnen sxvebic). yvelaze gavrcelebuli gazeTebi iyo: `komunisti~, `axalgazrda komunisti~, `soflis cxovreba~, `ganaxlebuli abaSa~, `lelo~, aseve gamoiwereboda da iyideboda `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, `mnaTobi~, `partiuli sityva~, iumoristuli Jurnalebi `niangi~, `niangis biblioTeka~ da sxva. adamianebi erTmaneTs werilebs (konvertSi Cadebuls), depeSebsa (`telegramebs~)  da ama Tu im TariRTan dakavSirebiT lamaz misaloc baraTebs ugzavnidnen;  aseve igzavneboda da modioda banderolebi,  amanaTebi (e.w. `pasilikebi~),  romlebSic raime produqti Tu sagani ido.
     mravali aTwleulis win xalxs hqondaT patefonebi da gramafonebi. maT jer saxeluriT momarTavdnen, ris Sedegadac maTi specialuri diskoseburi plastmasis firfita, firi (`plastinka~) zambaris saSualebiT erTxans brunavda da mis spiraliseburad daxveul, wvrilad dakvalul zedapirze dadebuli nemsis wveri xmis warmoqmnas, xolo liTonis yuTi da mili ki mis gaZlierebas iwvevda. eleqtroteqnikis ganviTarebasTan erTad Semovida eleqtro-radio-firsakravebic. Cvens sofelSi 1951 wels gamoiyvanes xazis radio, romelic mogvianebiT gauqmda da 80 _ iani wlebis bolos is isev gamoiyvanes, misi xazebi eleqtrogadamcem bozebze, denis xazebis qvemoT iyo damagrebuli, aseve is qviSanWalaSic midioda specialurad misTvis gzis marjvena kideSi dasobili boZebis saSualebiT, magram am ukanasknels ar umuSavia da misi xazebi daxsnes, xolo qviSanWalisaken mimavali boZebi amoTxares da waiRes.  CvenTan pirvelad `cisferi ekrani~ gogi Toduas saxlSi ainTo,  rac denis gamoyvanis Semdeg moxda. am televizors mravali adamiani didi interesiT uyurebda. Zveli televizorebi iyo: `aelita~, `vitiazi~, `rekordi~, `horizonti~,  `minski~, `Caika~, `slautiCi~ da sxva; pirvelad televizorebi da TviT gadacemebic Sav _ TeTri iyo, Semdeg ki feradi gadacemebi da televizorebic gamoCndnen. amJamad TiTqmis yvela ojaxs ucxouri feradi da Sav _ TeTri, pultiani televizorebi aqvT (magaliTad `korfuji~). Semdeg  gavrcelda magnitofoni da `pristavka~. dRes ki zogierT ojaxs Tanamedrove cifruli teqnikac _ `DVD~, cifruli kamera da fotoaparati,  aseve internetCarTuli kompiuteric (zurab goToSia, loma focxveraSvili, Tengiz lolua, slava kekeliZe, konstantine boxua, baCuk kopaleiSvili) aqvs.
     adre sofelSi iyo xazis telefonic, romliTac mravali mosaxle, aseve kantora, skola da maRazia sargeblobda. imdroindeli telefonis nomrebi 5 cifrisagan Sedgeboda, romelTagan pirveli cifri 9 iyo. satelefono kabelebis nawili boZebze (`stolbebze~) iyo dakidebuli, nawili ki miwisqveS iyo gayvanili, mowyobili iyo misi karadac (`Skafic~).  Semdeg,  90 _ ian wlebSi  isic moiSala, misi kabelebi, boZebi da zemoT naxsenebi satelefono sadguri daSales. amJamad TiTqmis yvela mosaxles mobiluri (magTis, balis, banis (es momsaxureba _ `brendi~ axlaxans Semovida), aseve jeoselis, lai _ laisa (isini 1997 wlidan moqmedeben) da axlad Semosuli bilainis nomrebiT) da usadeno telefonebi (magTi fiqsi,  silqneti (yofili telekomi)) aqvs Sesabamisi Tanamedrove servisebiT _ sms, mms, interneti, videozari da a. S.
     am adgilebSi televizia daaxloebiT 10 arxs uCvenebs (sazogadoebrivi mauwyebeli (Tbilisis I da II arxebi), is 1956 wlis 30 dekembridan mauwyeblobs, rusTavi 2, imedi,  samtredia, rioni, aWara, saqarTvelo, xoni, senaki _ egrisi),  xolo Tu satelitur antenas gamoviyenebT, rac zogierT mosaxles (nika gogiSvili, iona Todua, giga SalamberiZe, koba (Calis Rera) rurua, omar xaJomia, zviad janaSia, kote boxua, jambul jijelava da sxva) aqvs, uamravi qarTuli da ucxouri arxis daWeraa SesaZlebeli; sabWoTa dros mxolod ori telearxi, Tbilisis da moskovis televiziebi mauwyeblobdnen, Semdeg ki aRniSnuli televiziebi gaixsna, aseve moqmedebs saeTero radioc (Tbilisis I arxi, fortuna,  fortuna pliusi,  pirveli radio, imedi, sapatriarqos radio,  ar daidardo,  qalaqi, mravali ucxouri radioarxi). winaT televiziiT gadaicemoda sainformacio gadacemebi: alioni, naSuadRevs, moambe, Semdeg macne, qviSis saaTi, moskovidan ki `vremia~; dRes ki ZiriTadad qronika, kurieri da moambe gvatyobinebs axal informaciebs. aseve adre sabavSvo telegadacemebi iyo ciskara, zRapris guda, Zilispiruli, cerodenas ekrani, teleRipucebi,  amJamad ki basti _ bubu, mxiaruli ojaxi,  multfilmebi da sxva. garda amisa winaT mravalgvari filmebi, iumoristuli, gasarTobi, SemecnebiT _ saganmanaTleblo, sazogadoebrivi,  kulturuli, istoriuli  da sxva saxis programebi arsebobda da ramdenadme saxeSecvlili saxiT dResac arsebobs. komunistebis dros reklama da anonsebi televiziiTa da presiT ar vrceldeboda, dRes ki uamravi sareklamo rgolebia. tele _ radio gadacemebis nawili 24 saaTian reJimSi mauwyebloben. yovelive aRniSnulma udidesi roli Seasrula sazogadoebis ganviTarebis saqmeSi, Tumca amave dros maTma nawilma uaryofiTi gavlenac iqonia adamianebze.
     gauwyinarSi mTavar quCaze  1962 wels daniSnes `brizentiT~ gadaxuruli,  e.w. tentiani avtobusi (samtredia _ gauwyinaris reisis), is sul adre mTavari quCis dasawyisSi brundeboda da sofelSi ar Semodioda, Semdeg ki man reisi soflis centramde gaagrZela, bolos misi marSruti qviSanWalasa da baxvaWalamde,  meore quCis mosaxleobis bolomde, mosabrunebelTan Cavida. mogvianebiT  mis nacvlad calkariani, e.w. `karopka~ avtobusi moZraobda, 80 _ ian wlebSi ki isic `paz~_is markis yviTeli avtobusiT Secvales; 2009 wlidan aq mikroavtobusi moZraobs.  is weliwadis droisa da kviris dReebis (dasvenebis dRe orSabaTi) mixedviT dReSi 5 _ 7 reiss akeTebs samtredia _ gauwyinars (dReSi samjer qviSanWalaSic Cadis) Soris. pirvelad avtobusis mZRolebi (`Sofrebi~) iyvnen kowia da uCa kopaleiSvilebi,  Semdeg mituSa Sengelia, robert da vasil sturuebi, sergo kobrava,  avTandil TavaZe da sxvebi. Semdeg masze sergo miqaZe da muxran koxreiZe muSaobdnen, mogvianebiT kaxa boxua (samtredieli). maT zogjer gverdiT TanaSemweebi, mgzavrebisagan Camosvlisas samgzavro Tanxis mimRebebi hyavdaT (mag. vitali mefariSvili). daaxloebiT 2005 wlidan dRemde mZRoli ZiriTadad murman da misi Svili malxaz CaCuebia (samtrediis raion sofel gomidan). komunistebis dros mgzavroba 20 kapiki Rirda, dRes ki _ 1 laria. 90 _ ian wlebamde Cveni reisis avtobusi pirvel maisSi mamakacs daejaxa, romelic gardaicvala. meore quCaze mogvianebiT daniSnes iseTive yviTeli orkariani avtobusi, rogoric zemoT aRvniSneT, misi mZRoli erTxans mamul darcmeliZe iyo; ufro gvian aq iseTive calkariani avtobusi moZraobda,  mas avTandil talikaZe, Semdeg avTandil xurcilava marTavda (adre iyvnen sxvebic, magaliTad gigla xurcilava,  soso Turqia); amJamad ki am quCaze moZraobs mikroavtobusi,  romlis mZRolebi 2005 wlidan vaJa qanTaria da vaso muqeriaa (samtredielebi), aseve mosaxleobis nawili pirveli maisis `marSrutkiTac~ sargeblobs. adre gauwyinarSi dila _ saRamos kidev moZraobda gauwyinar _ cxakaias (dRevandeli senakis) reisis avtobusi da samtrediis xis damamuSavebeli kombinatis (e.w. `xdk~) avtobusi, romelic iq dasaqmebul Cveni da maxlobeli soflebis muSa _ mosamsaxureebs daatarebda. amJamad adamianebi xSirad taqsiTac sargebloben.
     avtomobilebis (avtomanqanebis, manqanebis, `maSinebis~) Semosvlamde (`zimi~,  `faqizo moskviCi~,  `vilisi, kolxozniki~,  `volga _ 21~,  `pabeda~ da sxva) rac 50 _ ian wlebSi moxda, adamianebi ZiriTadad saWapano transportiT (jer xarSebmuli urmebiT,  Semdeg ki cxeniani orTvalebiTac, e.w. `cxen _ kaWkebiT~) sargeblobdnen,  dRes ki soflis mosaxleobis nawils yofili sabWouri (`Jiguli~,  `volga~,  `niva~,  `moskviCi~,  `zaporoJeci~,  satvirTo avtomobilebi (`gruzaviki~, `kamazi~) da sxva) da aseve ucxouri (`firma~, importuli) manqanebic  (`bmv~, `mersedesi~, `opeli~, `marSrutka~ da sxva) hyavs, esenia: SoTa kapanaZe, iura, karlo (vaJa), zurab, rezo da giga goToSiebi, saCino, nukri, merab (meno), giorgi (gogita) surgulaZeebi, imedo, miSiko (mixeil) da albert Turqiebi, nugzar beriZe, robert (demur) janjRava, nikoloz gogiSvili, sevast da mamuka Toduebi, giga SalamberiZe, Tengiz da levan (biWuna) loluebi, jambul sturua, avTo janjRava, elvard WiqaSua, roland qiSmareiSvili, daTo janaSia, goga SublaZe,  merab karanaZe, giga da gia xaJomiebi, jambul da Tedo fircxalavebi, akaki (qoTia) ratiani, Salva (tutu) kekeliZe, elguja futkaraZe, aliko (aleqsandre) da merab koxreiZeebi, omar jijelava, baCuk kopaleiSvili da a. S. aseve or da samborbliani motociklebi hyavT iura da SoTa (Wabuk) goToSiebs, saCino da roman surgulaZeebs, roman naWyebias, kaxa xaJomias, gogilo koxreiZes da sxvas. amasTanave sakmaod  gavrcelebulia velosipedic (`ukraina~, `desna~, axladSemosuli ucxouri siCqareebiani velosipedi, aseve adre iyideboda sabavSvo `Skolniki~, `armioloki~, `saliuti~ da samborbliani velosipedebic),  romelic XX saukunis 30 _ ian wlebidan Semovida xmarebaSi,  iyeneben saWapano transports da gamwev Zalasac. 1966 wlamde maran _ abaSis saavtomobilo magistrali (trasa) Txmelaris maRaziasTan gadioda, avtomobilebi marnis `periezidan~ Txmelarisken modiodnen, gaivlidnen am teritorias  da noRelis xididan midiodnen abaSisaken. gzis am monakveTze motocikletiT avariis gamo 1964 wlis 7 ianvars, Sobas, 26 wlis asakSi daiRupa eduard goToSia, vaJa goToSias Zma, mogvianebiT, 1987 wlis 14 seqtembers, gauwyinaris maxloblad, pirveli maisisa da qviSanWalis SemaerTebel Zvel, dazianebul gzaze, motorelis gadabrunebis gamo daiRupa aleqsandre (alo, Tarale) surgulaZe (mamuka surgulaZis Zma),  xolo imave saRamos ki tragikulad daiRupa misi mZRoli gizo xabeiSvili (romani xabeiSvilis Zma), msgavsi Tu gansxvavebuli tragediebi sofelSi sxva drosac momxdara.
     CvenTan eleqtroenergia 1966 wlis ivnisSi CairTo, rasac uaRresad didi mniSvneloba hqonda cxovrebis Semdegi winsvlisa da ganviTarebis saqmeSi. sofeli winaT eleqtroenergiiT samtrediis bambis sarTavTan arsebuli qvesadguridan maragdeboda, Semdeg dafnaris qvesadgurze gadagviyvanes, amis mere tyviris qvesadgurs migvaerTes, sadac deni senakidan (cxakaiidan) modioda), 90 _ iani wlebis Sua periodidan ki isev samtrediis raion sofel dafnaridan, iq arsebuli qvesadguridan, mdinare rionis zemoT, pirveli maisisa da qviSanWalis damakavSirebel Zvel gzaze (es adgilebi adre dasaxlebuli iyo, mogvianebiT ki TiTqmis yvela mosaxle, manana (londa) grigolias garda gaRma gadaesaxla iq axladaSenebul saagureSi samuSaod), cxeniswyalis rionTan SeerTebis adgilas gadmoiyvanes axali xazebi, moawyves patara `butka~ denis gamTiSveliTa da mcvelebiT (Tumca is axla ar muSaobs da xazebi pirdapiraa SeerTebuli), aqedan mezobel soflebTan erTad gauwyinaric dRemde Rebulobs eleqtrodens. am dros rekonstruqcia gaukeTes soflis Siga xazebsac, abaSis sadenebi ki gadaxsnes. maRali Zabvis sammavTuliani aluminis xazebi (maT Sig foladis mavTulic aqvT simtkicisaTvis) yanebis,  ezoebis, stadionisa da quCebis gavliT miemarTeba damadablebel transformatorebSi da iqedan 220 volti Zabvis deni mosaxleobas miewodeba betonisa da xis boZebze  (`stolbebze~) izolatorebiT dakidebuli or, sam da oTxmavTuliani aluminis sadenebis saSualebiT. mTavari quCis mosaxleoba vaxtang Turqiasa da daviT boWoriSvilis ojaxebis CaTvliT da skolis ukana quCa, sul 37 ojaxi eleqtroenergias iRebs gauwyinaris skolis ezoSi arsebuli N114 transformatoridan. is ramodenimejer dazianda da mosaxleebma sakuTari xarjebiT gaaremontes. yvela transformators aqvs sahaero gamTiSveli, aq ki es yofili kolmeurneobis ezoSia mowyobili betonis boZze. gauwyinaris axali skolis aSenebamde da mis ezoSi transformatoris dayenebamde es ojaxebi N119 transformatorze iyvnen SeerTebulni, Semdeg ki isini skolis transformatorze gadmoiyvanes. aRniSnul mosaxleebamde ki sofeli deniT maragdeba pirveli maisis N115 transformatoridan. aseve meore quCas genad SublaZis saxlis CaTvliT ojaxebs deniT amaragebs mTavari gzis meore quCasTan SeerTebis adgilas, iago Toduas ezos win mdgari N119 transformatori, am mosaxleebis iqeT ki ojaxebs eleqtroenergias kutaiweris N121 transformatori awvdis,  xolo wisqvilis N120 transformatori wisqvilisa da misi quCis garda,  aseve meore quCis ramodenime mosaxlesac awvdis elqtroenergias. skolis ezoSi mdgari transformatori daxurul SenobaSia, soflis sxva transformatorebi ki Ria cis qveS arian betonis boZebze dayenebulebi. adre denis gadasaxads krefdnen specialurad amisTvis gamoyofili pirovnebebi _ inkasatorebi (amisaTvis sxvadasxva dros dadiodnen cico koxreiZe, JuJuna dundua, vaxtang ninua, Tezia xoneliZe, jambul komaxiZe da sxva). mowyobili iyo ezoebisa da gare ganaTebac, romlebic Semdeg moiSala. adre arsebuli energokrizisi mniSvnelovnad gamoaswora transformatorebTan koleqtiuri (komunaluri) mricxvelebis dayenebam. N114 transformatorTan es Tanamedrove komunaluri, impulsuri mricxveli 2005 wlis 15 aprils daayenes. male mosaxleobam Tavisi Zveli, sabWoTa gamoSvebis mbrunavdiskoiani mricxvelebi (`soCikebi~) sakuTari xarjebiT Sesabamis laboratoriaSi Seamowma da yuTebiT ezoebis gareT,  eleqtrogadamcem boZebze  gamoitana. gaauqmes inkasatorebi da abonentebi Tavad zrunavdnen gadasaxadis droulad Cabarebaze. male abonentebma araoficialur inkasatorad isev jambul komaxiZe daniSnes, romelsac gasamrjelos moxmarebuli denis fulTan erTad yovelTviurad TviTon uxdian. mas gadaxdili Tanxa energokompaniis (`energo-pro jorjia~) abaSis filialSi miaqvs da iqedan QqviTrebi moaqvs, romelsac abonentebs urigebs. Tumca am mxriv aris xarvezebi da konfliqturi situaciebi. eleqtrogadamcemi boZebi da xazebi moZvelebulia, amortizebulia, rac garkveul saSiSroebebsa da Seferxebebs qmnis; maT metwilad TviT mosaxleoba aremontebs sakuTari ZalebiT. avdaris, gansakuTrebiT ki qaris dros deni xSirad avariulad iTiSeba, aris sxva problemebic. individualurad mxolod skolisa da ramodenime mosaxlis (nukri surgulaZe, nikoloz gogiSvili, zviad janaSia da sxva) mier daxarjuli eleqtroenergia aRiricxeba maTi impulsuri, mocimcime naTurebiani mricxvelebiT, romlebTac Sin raime saxis msxvili eleqtromoxmarebis mowyobiloba aqvT.
     gauwyinarelebi purs umetesad adgilze yiduloben, romelsac motocikliT gia gegeSiZe da aseve `marSrutka~ (rafi, am saxis avtomanqana adre iSviaTi iyo) daatarebs yovel diliT (mas aseve zogjer zogierTi aqauri macxovrebelic yidis, magaliTad vera SublaZe, murTaz Turqia), meore quCaSi ki purs msubuqi avtomanqaniT daatareben.  didi xnis winaT xalxs puris yanebic hqondaT, xorbals bzesagan gamoacalkevebdnen da wisqvilSi dafqvavdnen, purs ToneSi da kecze acxobdnen. adamianebi dRes sursaTis, saWiro sagnebisa da medikamentebis nawils pirveli maisis kerZo maRaziebSi (vitali komaxiZisa da badri xoneliZis), `butkebSi~ (naira gigineiSvilis; murman SaTiriSvilisa da paata nikuraZis saerTo jixuri ki axla ar muSaobs) da afTiaqSi (ciuri kvaracxelia _ ruruasi, mas mcire afTiaqi saxlSi aqvs) iZenen,  xSirad nisiadac.  xalxi sayidlebsa da gasayidebze umetesad samtrediaSi, zogjer abaSaSic midian. rogorc vTqviT sofelSi aseve ramodenime ojaxs (magaliTad mamuka surgulaZe, nikoloz gogiSvili,  Jora da ruben janaSiebi, adre vaxtang Turqias, nugzar futkaraZesa da guguli qunTeliasac hqondaT patara jixurebi)  ezos wina RobesTan patara, maRaziis msgavsi Senobebi _ jixurebi (`butkebi~) aqvs Cadgmuli, sadac isini xandaxan zogierTi saxis produqtiT vaWroben. aseve sxvadasxva saxis nawarms `tavars~ zogierTi CanTebiT, `sunkebiT~ Camoatarebs gasayidad. drodadro gauwyinarSi avtomobilebiT sxvadasxva produqts (vaSli, kartofili, kombosto, xaxvi, mandarini da a.S.) Camoatareben gasayidad da soflis meurneobis produqtebze (ZiriTadad simindze) gadasacvlelad. aseve zogierTi adamiani ama Tu im saxis nawarmiT vaWrobs. aq kviraSi erTxel qviSanWaleli gia (korilo) verulaSvili cxeniTa da orTvaliT (`kaWkiT~),  marneli daviT ZiZiguri ki motocikliT (motoreliT) tomrebSi (e.w. `meSokebSi~) Cayril qatosa da puris fqvils Camoatareben gasayidad; aseve marneli zaur da medea arvelaZeebi aseTive motocikliT gauwyinaris ramodenime ojaxidan yvels yiduloben. didi xnis winaT sofelSi ebraeli uriebi dadiodnen, romlebic sxvadasxva wvrilmanebiT vaWrobdnen, aseve dRes iSviaTad maTxovrebi da mkiTxavebic Camoivlian xolme.
     2007 _ 2008 wlebSi rogorc sxvagan, aqac Rorebis avadmyofoba, afrikuli cxeleba gaCnda,  romelmac TiTqmis yvela Rori imsxverpla da didi ziani miayena isedac ekonomikurad naklebad SeZlebul mosaxleobas. adre iyo frinvelis Wiris SemTxvevebic. 2008 _ 2009 wlebSi Zalian gavrcelda mavnebeli amerikuli TeTri pepela, misi matlebi ablabudaTi, romelic mraval xes moedo da gaanadgura maTi mwvane nawili. maT sawinaaRmdegod sofelSi samjer specialuri manqaniT sawamlavis aerozoli moasxures, am mavneblebs aseve adgilobrivi mosaxleobac ebrZoda sakuTari ZalebiT,  meqanikuri da Termuli saSualebebiT.
     gadis dro, dRe dRes misdevs, weli ki wels, mniSvnelovanwilad icvleba adamianTa yofa _ cxovrebac, gansakuTrebiT ki bolo periodSi. adre ar iyo mravali is nivTi, sagani, xelsawyo da transporti, qarxana, sawarmo _ organizaciebi, romelTa gareSec dRes warmoudgenelia Tanamedrove adamianis cxovreba da saqmianoba. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT Zvel droSi ar iyo Zraviani transporti da Wirda gadaadgileba, xalxi xareb da kameCebSebmuli urmebiTa da cxeniani orTvalebiT (ori didi rkinis salteebiani borbliT, mas RerZze sapons wausvamdnen xaxunis Zala rom SeemcirebinaT, vinaidan maSin solidoli (`taoti~), zeTi da sxva sapoxi masalebi ar iSoveboda, rezinis saburavebi ki gvian Semovida avtomanqanebis gavrcelebasTan erTad) sargeblobda, savaraudod maSin iarsebebda marxilebica da saTrielic, romelSic aseve cal an wyvil pirutyvs Seabamdnen da amgvari saSualebebiT miiwevdnen win Cveni winaprebi soflis orRobeebSic da wuTisoflis cxovrebis gzazec. Sors samgzavrod matarebels iyenebdnen,  Tumca 1871 wlamde, rodesac gaiyvanes foTi _ yvirilas rkinigza, arc matarebeli iyo, momdevno wels ki foTi _ Tbilisis sarkinigzo magistralic amoqmedda, sadac maSin Tbomavlebi (`paraozebi~) daatarebdnen vagonebs. wina saukunis daaxloebiT 60 _ ian wlebamde axalgazrdebi saRamo xans, soflebSi fexiTa da velosipedebiT (veloebiT) dadiodnen jarianobaze, romelic gvian Ramemde grZeldeboda. Zvelad ar arsebobda traqtorebi (yanebs xarebiT, kameCebiTa da mogvianebiT cxenebiT xnavdnen da amuSavebdnen, hqondaT xis guTani da sxva saSualebebi), eleqtroenergia, saaTi (dros samtrediis deposa da ZafsaRebi fabrikis sayvirebis xmis,  aseve  quCaSi damZaxebeli adamianis xmis gagonebiTa da caze mzis mdebareobis mixedviT sazRvravdnen), televizori, radio, sarecxi da sakeravi manqanebi  (denis uTos magivrad naxSiris uTo hqondaT), gazqura, navTqura, Txevadi da airadi sawvavi, aseve fotoaparati (romelic CvenTan  XX _ saukunis dasawyisSi Semovida), telefoni, Jurnal _ gazeTebi, avtokalami (`pasta~); naklebad icodnen wera _ kiTxvac. aseve ar iyo konservi, namcxvari, torti, mravalgvari sakvebi da sxva. gavrcelebuli iyo xis sufrebi, romlebzec gadasafarebeli (`stolsafari~) ar efara da zogierT sakvebs,  magaliTad Roms TefSebis gareSe pirdapir ficarze arigebdnen. qvamarils qvis `sacexvelSi~ daafxvierebdnen (danayavdnen) da sakvebad iyenebdnen.  winaT ar iSoveboda mina, Spaleri, laq _ saRebavebi, plastmasa, polieTileni, celofani, mravali saxis WurWeli,  gavrcelebuli iyo (da dResacaa) Tixis doqi, koka,  xelada,  sura,  keci, kelamidi,  zogierTi xis WurWeli  da sxva nakeTobani. ar arsebobda sarecxi fxvnilic, sapons Sin amzadebdnen Roris qonisa da nacris nareviT maRal temperaturaze, aseve gamoiyeneboda dasabani miwac. Wirda fexsacmelic, fexze ecvaT wuRebi, qalamnebi (mas zogjer Zroxis tyavisganac keravdnen), tilos `tuflebi~, xis Ziriani qoSebi; tanze dRevandelisagan ramdenadme gansxvavebuli samosi ecvaT, keravdnen Coxas da sxva tansacmels. xalxi cxvris matyls saCeCelis nemsebze CeCavdnen, Semdeg TiTistariT (CeriaTi) Zafs darTavdnen da qsovdnen, gavrcelebuli iyo xeliT, CxirebiT qsova. maSin arc sigaretebi arsebobda, maT nacvlad hqondaT Tambaqos nargavebi, romelTa foTlebs krefdnen, Zafebze ancmevdnen da axmobdnen, Semdeg ki maT daaqucmacebdnen da qaRaldSi Seaxvevdnen an yalionSi Cayridnen da ise eweodnen; gavrcelebuli iyo Cibuxebic,  romelSic sigarets amagrebdnen da eweodnen. 80 _ ian wlebamde iSviaTi iyo sanTebela (`zaJikalka~), Zalian Zvelad rodesac asanTic ar iyo, xalxi cecxls e.w. `kves _ abediT~ (kaJis qvebiTa da abedis sokoTi) anTebdnen da mas xangrZlivad inaxavdnen Cauqroblad. sul adre sacxovrebel Senobebs albaT zeTiani da qoniani sustad mbJutavi kvarebiT (CiraRdnebiTac) anaTebdnen, Semdeg navTic gavrcelda da Wraqebsa da lampebze gadavidnen. mogvianebiT Semovida asanTi (`spiCka~); erTxans gamodioda didi zomis asanTis kolofebi mravalricxovani RerebiT. adre arc cementi iyo da saxlebi (xSirad qoxebi, qoxmaxebi) umTavresad xisgan Sendeboda. vinaidan Rumeli ar arsebobda, iq talaxiT naSeneb aguris buxrebsa (romelSic qvabis dasakidebeli kavi, naWa iyo dakidebuli) da Suacecxls (naWas aqac iyenebdnen) anTebdnen. Senobebs sul adre mcenare isliT xuravdnen,  maT xSirad `Tavani~ ar hqondaT, mogvianebiT kramiti da Semdeg Siferic Semovida. maSin ar iyo aseve mravali wamali, parfiumeria, samedicino xelsawyo, Cvil bavSvTa sakvebi (`humana~, `herkulesi~,  `maliSi~,  `maliutka~ da sxva)  da  movlis (`pampersi~,  `kenguru~, sawovara (`soska~) da a.S.) saSualebebi,  saavadmyofoebi da samSobiaroebi, amis gamo qalebi daaxloebiT wina saukunis Sua periodamde saxlSi mSobiarobdnen Sesaferisi gamocdili pirovnebis, bebiaqalis TanxlebiT, isini iyvnen magaliTad olia qunTelia (kutaiwereli) da margalita Citia (pirvel maiseli). gavrcelebuli iyo eqimbaSebi, mcenareuli da soflis wamlebi, kiserze wurbelis mijena, Selocvebi (nauJmuris (Senaxvdomis), naTvalevis, SeSinebulis, gvelis nakbenis), Taviseburi movlis wesebi `batonebian~ bavSvebze (maTi pativiscema, sufris gawyoba da sxva); aseve yavis naleqze da kartze mkiTxaoba (marCieloba),  e.w. `sarkis dadgma~, `TefSis datrialeba~ micvalebulis sulis gamosaZaxeblad (am spiritul seanss da sarkis dadgmas umetesad axalgazrdebi akeTeben) da sxva, maTi nawili dRemde SemorCa. 90 _ ian wlebSi sakavSiro televiziiT (moskovis arxi) gamodioda kaSpirovski, romelic samkurnalo seansebs atarebda da man maSin didi popularoba moipova; Semdeg ki ramodenime qarTveli eqstrasensic atarebda analogiur seansebs, aseve gamovida `damuxtuli~ gazeTebic, yovelive eseni SesaZloa mxolod placebos efeqtis mqone yofiliyo. adre wonis sazom erTeulebad iyenebdnen fuTs (1 fuTi 16 kilogramia, mas dResac farTod iyeneben dafSvnili simindis asawonad), baTmans (8 kilogrami),  koleqtivis dros ki centners (is udrida 100 kilograms), aseve sul adre miwas zomavdnen qcevobiT (1 qceva udris 0,4 heqtars). Semdeg TandaTan Semovida mravali siaxle. amasTanave cvlileba ganicada adamianTa wes _ Cveulebebma, tradiciam, Cacmulobam, modam (gansakuTrebiT gogonebsa da qalebSi, romlebmac daiwyes Sarvlebis Cacma, rac 90 _ ian wlebamde ar xdeboda da manamde mxolod kabebs atarebdnen), metyvelebis stilma, am mxriv adgili aqvs uaryofiT tendenciebsac. damkvidrda axali gamoTqmebi da terminebi, maT Soris miuRebelic da barbarizmebic; gaCnda axali tele _ radio gadacemebi, Jurnal _ gazeTebmac icvales ieri,  Camoyalibda Tanamedrove yofa _ cxovreba, SeiniSneba evropuli stilisadmi mibaZva; yovelive aRniSnulma rogorc dadebiTi, ise uaryofiTi gavlena iqonia adamianze.
     aq  umTavresad gamrje  da Sromismoyvare xalxi cxovrobs,  romlebmac WirSi da lxinSi erTmaneTis gverdiT dgoma ician, Tumca rogorc yvelgan, aqac gvxvdeba sapirispiro SemTxvevebic: adamianTa uaryofiTi Tvisebebi, sxvadasxva mizezTa gamo kamaTi, wyevla, gineba, Cxubi, usiamovnebani mezoblebSi da ojaxis SigniTac, qurdoba, miuRebeli saqcieli, sigaretis moweva, alkoholis zedmetad daleva da sxva; aris sxva problemebic, romlebTan gamklavebac iyo da aris gauwyinarelebis zrunvis sagani.
     dRes gauwyinaris yvelaze mcirewlovani macxovreblebi lana surgulaZe da gabriel boWoriSvilia _ 3 Tvis (daibadnen 2009 wlis dekemberSi),  uxucesebi ki katuSa RirdalaZe da nina gogeiSvili, romlebic 94 wlisaa (daibadnen 1916 wels).  zogierT adamians metsaxelic (fsevdonimi,  `kliCka~)  aqvs, isini teqstSi xSirad frCxilebSia  Casmuli namdvili saxelis Semdeg.
     gauwyinari  ramodenimejer iyo maRali rangis stumrebis maspinZeli maT Tanmxleb pirebTan Tu dacvis wevrebTan erTad. rogorc vTqviT Zvel skolaSi pirveli qarTulis gakveTili Caatara grigol abaSiZem. CvenTan 70 _ ian wlebSi Camovida saqarTvelos cekas pirveli mdivani vasil mJavanaZe, 80 _ ian wlebSi ki ssrk _ is ministrTa sabWos Tavmjdomare aleqsei kosigini, man daaTvaliera sofeli da ferma. erTxel eduard SevardnaZemac Camoiara aq avtomanqaniT, romelic qviSanWalaSi midioda. areulobisa da samoqalaqo dapirispirebis periodSi,  90 _ iani wlebis Sua xanebSi Cvens sofelSi Tavs afarebda dRevandeli konservatorebis lideri zviad ZiZiguri. 2003 wels ki saparlamento arCevnebamde axal (dReisaTvis ukve ararsebul) kantoris darbazSi mosaxleobas (amomrCevlebs) Sexvda SemdegSi (dRevandeli) saqarTvelos prezidenti mixeil saakaSvili, ufro adre ki aq koncertSi miiRo monawileoba cnobilma qarTvelma msaxiobma qarTlos kasraZem da sxva pirovnebebma, kidev ufro adre gauwyinarSi, eqim grigol (griSa) CargeiSvilis dakrZalvaze (romelic dRevandel sevast Toduas ezoSi cxovrobda) mis ojaxSi Camovida maTi naTesavi, sayovelTaod cnobili qarTveli kinovarskvlavi leila abaSiZe. Cvens mezobel sofel qviSanWalaSi iRebdnen qarTuli kinofilmis `nergebis~ erT _ erT epizods, misi reJisori rezo CxeiZe (is erTma Cvenma soflelma gadaarCina wyalSi daxrCobas, rodesac mis navSi wyali Sevida), msaxiobebi ramaz CxikvaZe, mixeil mesxi da gadamRebi jgufi gauwyinarSic gavliT iyvnen. daaxloebiT 2005 wels aseve qviSanWalaSi stumrobis dros gauwyinaris gza tranzitad gamoiyena maSindelma energetikis (dRevandelma premier) ministrma nika gilaurma. ufro gvian, saparlamento arCevnebis win gauwyinarelebTan  skolis ezoSi Sexvedra moawyo partia `Tavisuflebis~ liderma konstantine  (koko) gamsaxurdiam (zviad gamsaxurdias ufrosma Svilma), romelic maSin abaSis raionis maJoritar kandidatad iyrida kenWs. aseve adre mosaxleobas skolaSi Sexvda Tengiz kalandaZe, soso Wanturia (abaSis maSindeli gamgebeli) Tanmxleb pirebTan erTad. gauwyinarSi axlaxans iyvnen ucxoeli Cineli vaWrebi da fexburTeli Savkaniani zangebi. sofelSi periodulad dResac modian raionisa da soflis Tavkacebi. aseve Tavis mxriv Cveni soflelebic yofilan saqarTvelosa da msoflios sxvadasxva adgilebSi sapatio stumrebis saxiT da monawileoba miuRiaT ama Tu im procesebSi.
     sofelSi lamazi gazafxuli icis. rodesac buneba iRviZebs, pirvelad enZelebi ayvavdebian, mere Txilebi gaifoTlebian mwvaned da tyemlis totebi daixunZlebian TeTri yvavilebiT, Semdeg atami moisxams vardisfer yvavilebs, amoiwvereba balaxi, irgvliv yvelaferi gaifurCqneba da galamazdeba, yvavilebis surneli aTrobs maSin aqaurobas; mofrindebian mercxlebi da mxiarulad aJRurtuldebian Citebi, RamiT ismis zogierTi frinvelis, WriWinebisa da bayayebis xmebi. am drosve, aprilidan iwyeba adamianebis aqtiuri zrunva sagazafxulo samuSaoebisaTvis.  Cveni niadagi noyieria, magram mas didi Sroma _ jafa da movla _ patronoba sWirdeba, rac dRes sakmao TanxebTanaa dakavSirebuli; aseve mniSvnelovania saTanado klimaturi pirobebis (mze, cvari, siTbo, drogamoSvebiT wvimac) arseboba. miwa rodesac gaSreba, mas guTniani traqtoriT xnaven (zogjer wina wlis CaCabebs moWrian _ `moCorgaven~), ufro gavrcelebulia `belarusis~ markis traqtorebi, Semdeg farcxaven an diskaven, cdiloben kargad daafxvieron, Tesaven (saTesiT) umetesad simindis kulturas _ `mindvris dedofals~,  ZiriTadad gavrcelebulia TeTri da abaSis yviTeli jiSis simindebi, aseve ajameTi, hibriduli, amerikuli, wvrilmarcvliani da sxva saxis simindebi, romelSic xSirad ureven soios (muxudos, mas zogjer calkec Tesaven), lobios, gogrisa (xokora da Cveneburi kvaxis) da cocxis Tesls. yvela SemTxvevaSi traqtorists aZleven garkveul Tanxas da usxamen sawvavs. gauwyinarSi traqtorebi (`lafetiT~, guTniT, farcxiT, diskiT, saTesiTa Tu kultivatoriT (`samaSinoTi~)) hyavT giga goToSias (masze avTo janjRava muSaobs), robert (demur) janjRavas, Saqro (bacia) quTaTelaZes, vital ruruas, mamuka Toduas, ruben janaSias, baCuk kopaleiSvils da sxvas; aseve aqauri mosaxleoba miwebis dasamuSaveblad da moweuli mosavlis wamosazidad xSirad sargeblobs sxva soflebis traqtorebiTac, qviSanWalidan traqtorebi hyavT: tariel da jumber SalvaZeebs, iuza kalandaZes (isic giga goToSiasaa), zaza lomsaZes, iura futkaraZes; pirveli maisidan: gialo gegeSiZes, beJan grigolias, oTar (oTia) da raul comaiebs, avTo (dalaSo) Citias da sxvebs. is ojaxebi, romlebTac uWirT TavianTi yanebis damuSaveba da mosavlis moyvana, miwas sxvebs miaqiraveben (gascemen) Tanxisa Tu simindis (aseve Calis) sanacvlod. bolo xans gavrcelda aseve sazamTrosa da nesvis baRebic,  romelTa movla _ patronoba da realizacia mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebulia tradiciuli mesimindeobisagan.  bevr ojaxs patara nakveTi ukana ezoSic aqvs; aseve baraven,  afxviereben da Tesaven bostans, anoyiereben nakeliT. gvian gazafxulze, rodesac yanebSi simindi ukve amodis, sabalaxos karebs aReben da saqonels Sig mierekebian, zemoT naxseneb karebs ki gisosebiani ormos gverdiT hkideben.
     zafxulSi ukve yanebi amosulia. ivnisis TveSi mas xalxi akultivaciebs (`amaSinebs~) kultivatoriani traqtoriT an cxeniT, radgan sarevelebi ar moedos (gavrcelebulia walami, burCxia, ambrosia, yviTelyvavilebiani (es ori saxeoba CvenTan mogvianebiT gavrcelda, romlis momravlebasac ucxoeTidan Semotanil xorblis Teslsa da qatos abraleben),  jijilayi, birkali, veluri lobio, zRvis balaxi, ZaRlyurZenasebrTa ojaxis warmomadgenlebi da sxva sarevela balaxebi; yanebis, arxebisa da yanebis pira gzebis kideebze, sayaneebze da daumuSavebel miwebze Txmelebi da kvantaciebic (aseve anwlic) moedo, zogierTi balaxiT cxovelebi ikvebeba), Toxnis, marglavs, gamoxSiravs, Seaqvs azotiani sasuqi, es yovelive ki kargi mosavlis sawindaria. wels aseve gamoiyenes sarevela balaxebis mowamvlac, rasac ZiriTadad giga goToSias mier damzadebuli sawamlavi aparati asrulebs, romelic misive traqtorzea mibmuli, mas iuza kalandaZe marTavs. RamiT cicinaTelebi dafrinaven. zafxulis miwuruls da Semodgomis dasawyisSi Txilic mwifdeba, romelsac adamianebi Zirs darekaven da Semdeg akrefen (moxikaven). aq zafxuli zomierad cxeli icis, zogjer gvalvebia da haeris temperatura  + 38,   + 39 graduss aRwevs. xSirad ki ca mravali dRis ganmavlobaSi RrublebiT ifareba gawvimebis gareSe,  zogjer ki wvimebi gaxangrZlivdeba, rac amcirebs mosavlis xarisxsa da raodenobas. cxel dReebSi mosaxleobac Sesabamisad moqmedebs, SuadRiT eridebian aqtiur samuSaoebs, isveneben CrdilSi, dadian mdinare cxeniswyalze da rionze (zogjer sxva mdinareebzec, aseve Sav zRvaze) ankesebiT saTevzaod da sabanaod,  sadac iWeren zuTxs, kobrs, Rlavs, taransa da sxva Tevzebs; zogierTi dasasveneblad wasvlasac axerxebs saqarTvelos kurortebze (komunistebissobas anu komunistebis dros kurortebze da samogzaurod ufro xSirad dadiodnen, maT Soris ruseTSi, sxva mokavSire respublikebsa da zogjer ucxoeTis socialistur qveynebSic ki), bavSvebis nawili ki sazafxulo ardadegebis gamo aqeTac Camodis axlobel _ naTesavebTan. am dros motocikliT da velosipediT daatareben nayinsac.
     zafxulis miwuruls krefen yurZens, vazi aq didad gavrcelebuli ar aris da is mxolod ezoebSi aqvT,  gvxvdeba misi Semdegi jiSebi:  adesa,  TeTri adesa, frangula (kaWiWi),  aladasturi, izabela,  kamuri  da sxva.  maTi  mokrefisa da dawurvis (gaWyentvis) Semdeg, Rvinos ZiriTadad liTonis kasrebSi (`boWkebSi~) ayeneben, romelsac wyalsa da Saqarsac umateben.  qvevri (`Wuri~) aq iSviaTobaa, Zvelad is ufro meti raodenobiT hqondaT, saidanac Rvinis amosaRebad iyenebdnen gansakuTrebuli jiSis gogris (e.w. kvatula kvaxis) xrikias,  romelsac SigTavsi gamoclili hqonda da mas grZel joxze amagrebdnen. adre xis kasrebi da sawnaxelebic hqondaT, romlebSic yurZens fexiT `Wyintavdnen~. ramodenime dReSi iReben maWars (tkbils), amzadeben TaTaras (felamuSs), CurCxelas, igive janjuxas, zogjer masSi amoavleben simindis taroebsac. WaWiT, tyemliT da sxva xiliT xdian arays (`otkas~). maT liTonis kasrebSi Cayrian, daumateben Saqarian wyals xarisxisa da raodenobis gazrdis mizniT, hermetulad moukraven Tavs da ramodenime kviras daayovneben. Semdeg ki mas aluminis an spilenZisagan damzadebul gamosaxdel qvabSi Cayrian, Tavze mWidrod daaxuraven zarxufs, romelsac wyliT gagrilebis sistema (`rofe~) aqvs morgebuli,  qvabs cecxls SeunTeben da cota xnis Semdeg arayis wvrili nakadi iwyebs denas,  rac ramodenime saaTs grZeldeba. wynar, uqaro Rames garemo cvariT (namiT) ifareba, Cndeba nislic (burusi), romelic dRisiT ifanteba. zafxulSi mze horizontis zemoT, amosul mdgomareobaSi 15 saaTis ganmavlobaSi imyofeba, xolo dRis sruli xangrZlivoba 18 saaTia. adre gazafxulze saaTebis Cvenebas 1 saaTiT win gadaswevdnen, gvian SemodgomiT ki _ ukan (zafxulisa da zamTris droebi),  ramodenime welia es wesi gauqmda, axla mxolod saswavlo da samuSao dro icvleba sezonurad 1 an naxevari saaTiT.
     SemodgomiT,  oqtombris TveSi,  rodesac mosavlis aRebis dro anu rogorc mas sofelSi uwodeben _ stveli moaRwevs,  yvelani yanebSia ganfenili, raTa droulad daabinaon, daamaragon mTeli wlis naSrom _ najafi da sarCo _ sabadebeli,  wlis mosavali.  roca simindi `Cabazdeba~ da Semdeg gaxmeba,  taroian Calas namgaliT Wrian da grovebad miawyoben, anu rogorc ityvian aCengeleben (mas Tavs moukraven), zogjer ki maSinve miaqvT Sin traqtorebiTa da saWapano transportiT. mas xandaxan fexadac texaven an taroebs `qurCanianad CamoqviCaven~. xSirad momxmared (e.w. `nadi~) mezoblebs iyeneben, romlebsac Semdeg gaumaspinZldebian da sxva dros samagierod TviTonac exmarebian, SemodgomiT xalxi erTmaneTs xvavsa da baraqas usurveben. taroebs texaven da godoriT sasimindeSi (beRelSi,  naliaSi) Cayrian, Calas ki jer kargad aSroben, Semdeg mavTulebiTa (`sinebiT~) da `SpaxaTis~ TokebiT,  xandaxan grZeli balaxiTac (walami) konaven da mrgvalad zvinaven (masac umetesad konebiTve Tavs ukeTeben da ukraven, Sig wyalma rom ar Cavides) sworad dasobili maRali saris irgvliv,  romelsac zamTarSi sxva sakvebTan (qato, soio, simindi, RerRili, fqvili) erTad pirutyvis gamosakvebad iyeneben. ufro iSviaTad celiT Tibaven balaxs, mas axmoben da Tivis saxiT zvinaven da inaxaven, aseve zogjer yiduloben Tivis tukebsac, cdiloben yovelive samuSao mSralad moaswron. winaT, koleqtivis arsebobisas siminds yanebSi texavdnen da ramodenime dRiT konebisagan mowyobil did kaloebSi inaxavdnen,  Calas ki iqve zvinavdnen. rodesac traqtori moiclida da mas Tavmjdomare nebas darTavda, masze mibmul `lafets~ datvirTavdnen da mosavali sawyobis ezoSi mihqondaT,  Tumca  mis did nawils, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, sawyobSi  abarebdnen. zogierT ojaxs ezoSi aqvs Calis Sesanaxi gadaxuruli nagebobac (`navesi~),  romelSic Sesanax Calas dazvinva da zogjer mokonvac ar sWirdeba. stvelis bolos soioc xmeba da masac namglebiT moWrian, Sin waiReben, gaaxmoben, dafSvnian, namjas dazvinaven, marcvlebs (`kekals~) ki Seinaxaven. magram zogjer soflel glexebs amindi ar uwyobT xels (isini interesiT uyureben Tu ras ityvis televizorSi  (qronika,  kurieri, moambe) sinoptikosebi uaxloesi dReebis amindis prognozis Sesaxeb), wvima atalaxebs yanebsa da gzebs (aseve wylis gubeebi dgeba ezoebSic) gansakuTrebiT gruntians, amcirebs mosavlis raodenobas da xarisxs. aq ori mimarTulebis qaria gabatonebuli: aRmosavleTis qari anu zena xSirad ufro Zlieri da xangrZlivia; dasavleTis qari anu qvena,  romelic umTavresad saRamos dauberavs,  garemos agrilebs,  rasac zogjer avdari mohyveba. orive qari arTulebs sagazafxulo da saSemodgomo samuSaoebs, azianebs mosavlis nawils, hglejs xeebs, Camoyris xexils, gadaxdis saxuravebsa da wyvets eleqtrosadenebs, magram mSromeli kacis marjvena maTze Zlieria. setyva (koxi) aq TiTqmis ar icis,  Weqa _ quxili (elva da grgvinva _ `gvinva~) ki sakmaod xSirad, zogjer mexic daecema maRal xeebsa da sagnebs.  `nastvlevs~,  rodesac mosavali ukve aRebulia,  gisosebTan im kars Camoxsnian da Seinaxaven,  pirutyvi ki farTobebSi Tavisuflad midis da Zovs, Zroxebi gaiSveba (saRamos maT metwilad patronebi eZebs da modenis), rac dadebiTad moqmedebs maT wveladobaze. aqedan mTavari quCis mosaxleTa Zroxebi da Rorebi qviSanWalis gzis marcxniv, grigoliebis ukana mxaresa da naramoSi, xolo marjvniv kirkalaSi midian saZovad; aseve amave periodSi gaaReben goSaxis dasawyisSi karebs da pirutyvi goSaxSi, kirkalasa da cxilarSi Zovs;  xolo meore quCa ki saqonels ZiriTadad baxvaWalis farTobebSi mierekeba. amave periodSi amzadeben ZiriTadad xurmisa da sxva xilis Cirebs, kompotebs, murabebs, pomidorisa da tyemlis wvenebs, mwnilebs (mJaveebs),  konservebsa da sxva saxis zamTris marag sakvebs, nobaTs. civ RameebSi miwaze da sagnebze Cndeba rTvili, ris gamoc diliT garemo gadaTeTrebulia.
     bolos zamTaric modis, romelic soflis geografiuli mdebareobidan gamomdinare  (dablobi, siaxlove Sav zRvasTan, teniani haeri) mcired Tovliani (wyliani Tovli, TovlWyapi) icis da isic male, ramodenime dReSi  dneba, rogorc aq ityvian, xSirad Tovli mxolod saxlis saxuravebze, xeebze da miwaze daamCnevs da meti ara, Tumca bavSvebi gundaobas, Tovlis babuas gakeTebasa da srials mainc axerxeben, aq marxilebi,  `sankebi~, cigebi, cigurebi, `liJebi~, Txilamurebi ara aqvT. gamonaklisi SemTxvevebi metad iSviaTia, magaliTad daaxloebiT 1982 wels CvenTan erT metramde Tovli movida, im dros maSindeli fermebis saxuravebis kideebidan grZeli da msxvili yinulis loluebi iyvnen CamoSvebulebi, gzebs ki Tovlis sqeli  safarisagan eqskavatoris daniT wmendavdnen, xrilavdnen saxlis saxuravebs. msgavsi SemTxveva adrec axsovT soflis uxucesebs. haeris temperatura zamTarSi iSviaTadaa dabali, is umetesad 0 graduss zemoTaa, yinvebi TiTqmis ar icis, temperatura -10 graduss qvemoT iSviaTad Camodis (ramodenime wlis win, diliT -12 gradusi sicive dafiqsirda, ufro adre ki -14 gradusi yinvac iyo, rac Zalian iSviaTia). Tovli da sicive dadebiTad moqmedebs Semdgom mosavalze, wmends haers, spobs bacilebsa da mavneblebs. zamTarSi xeebs foTlebi gascviva da balaxic xmeba, magram maradmwvane mcenareebi da balaxis nawili mainc mwvanea. xalxi am dros saTbobadDda sakvebis mosamzadeblad SeSas da Rumelebs, Tbil sezonze ki buxrebs, navTqurasa (`kerasinka~) da gazquras iyenebs. adre qvanaxSirc uxvad modioda da iafic Rirda,  gansakuTrebiT maRalxarisxiani iyo antraciti, Semdeg misi Semotana saerTod Sewyda.  mogvianebiT quCebSi daawyves gazsadenis milebi, magram es proeqti CaiSala, misi nawili aSales da gayides, nawili ki mosaxleobam miiTvisa. zamTarSi mze horizontis zemoT mxolod 8 saaTis ganmavlobaSi imyofeba, dRis sruli xangrZlivoba ki 11 saaTi da 30 wuTia. am periodSi safSveni manqaniT an xeliT dafSvnian sasimindeSi Cayril simindis taroebs, siminds dabertyaven da hermetulad Seinaxaven, nakortalebs ki cecxlis dasanTebad iyeneben. zamTarSive moixmaren Senaxuli sakvebis maragis nawils.
     soflidan Sors, aRmosavleTidan dasavleTamde gadaWimulia samtrediisa da Coxatauris raionebis kuTvnili guriis lamazi mTebi, romlebic garkveul gavlenas axdenen aqaur havaze.  isini metwilad dafarulia maradmwvane tyeebiT, maTze Cans mosaxleoba da maTi ezo _ nakveTebi, eleqtrodenis anZebi, gzebi, transportis moZraoba,  RamiT anTebuli naTurebi da sxva. am  mTebis mwvervalebi gvian zafxulamde dafarulia TovliT. Tu saTanado mdebareobas davikavebT, davinaxavT mezobeli samtrediis raionis asfaltis qarxnis mils amomavali kvamliT, aRmosavleTiT ki mdinare rionis sarkinigzo xids masze gamavali matarebliT, romlis moZraobisa da signalis xmac xSirad ismis gauwyinarSi; amave adgilebSi SevamCnevT satelefono anZasac. CrdiloeT mxares ki maradiuli TovliTa da yinuliT dafarul maRal kavkasionis qedsac SevamCnevT, isini xSirad RrublebSia gaxveuli, maTze gamovarCevT or lamaz, piramidisebur mwvervals. yoveldRiurad caze Zalian maRla gadaifrenen saerTaSoriso Soreuli reisebis TviTmfrinavebi, romlebic ukan carciviT TeTr kvals toveben, agreTve gauwyinaris caze ufro dabal simaRleze xSirad gadaifrenen samxedro da samoqalaqo vertmfrenebi (`vertaliotebi~) da umetesad reaqtiuli TviTmfrinavebi,  romlebic garkveul xmas gamoscemen.
     aseTia abaSis raionis sofel gauwyinaris quCebis, teritoriis, maTi saxelwodebisa da ganlagebis, aseve mniSvnelovani obieqtebisa da maTi daniSnulebis,  mosaxleobisa da maTi yofa _ cxovrebis sakmao sizustiT aRwera (Tumca gamoricxuli ar aris garkveuli uzustobebis arseboba) rogorc istoriulad, aseve TanamedroveobaSi.








     yvelaze metad moZRvarTan ar SeiZleba tyuilis Tqma an raimes damalva aRsarebis dros da istorikosTan, rodesac is Tavisi naSromisaTvis daxmarebas gTxovs, cnobebs Rebulobs Tqvengan. maT Soris gansxvaveba isaa, rom moZRvari Sens naambobs aravis eubneba, istorikosi ki mTels qveynierebas amcnobs mas. moZRvaric, istorikosic da saerTod yvela adamiani mxolod simarTles unda ambobdes!



ar daviviwyoT warsuli, misi gaTvaliswinebiT davgegmoT momavali!!!



                 s o f e l o ,    C e m o   s o f e l o,
                 l a m a z o   C e m o   m x a r e o ,
                 S r o m i T    d a   S e n i   s i u x v i T
                 s a m S o b l o   g a a x a r e o ! . .



     avtori did madlobas moaxsenebs: mama egnates am naSromis kurTxevisaTvis;

          aseve:  gauwyinaris skolas;
                 gauwyinaris biblioTekas;
                 gauwyinaris sabavSvo baRs;
                 pirveli maisis sakrebulos;
                 samtrediis avtosadgurs;
                 abaSisa da zugdidis raionebis arqivebs;
          gamoyenebuli literaturis avtorebs;              
                 sxva organizacia _ dawesebulebebs;
           yofil da moqmed sxvadasxva Tanamdebobis pirebs;
                gauwyinarisa da sxva adgilebis macxovreblebs, 40-ze met pirovnebas, informaciis mowodebisaTvis, saWiro cnobebis mopovebaSi  aqtiuri monawileobisa da sxva saxis daxmarebisaTvis.

      

















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